Accolades are honors bestowed on someone for achievements. If you hover your mouse cursor over the award emblem, you will get a description of the accolade.
For instance, you will receive such a badge for membership of a year or more. Another one will be for publishing 10 or 100 hubs. Another one will be awarded for gaining more than 100 followers. And still another one for attracting 1000 visits to your hubs. Each of these is performance-based.
BTW, welcome to Hub Pages. Your one badge is for Level 1 commenter, for leaving insightful and engaging comments on others' hubs. Well done!