Without Adsense account you will not be able to earn from any of the Hubpages earning options (except from the Amazon affiliate).
To make it clear - Hubpages provides the publishers the following options to monetize their content :
1. Through Google Adsense directly
2. Through Hubpages Ad program (Google Adsense is the prerequisite)
3. Through Ebay (Google Adsense is the prerequisite)
4. Through Amazon (you need to have an Amazon affiliate ID)
Please understand that all the above are advertisement based and not pay per article model.