There seems to be some confusion here. Google adsense and google affiliate are two different programs.
Alinu's answer mostly contain CPC or CPM advertising programs (Eg. adbrite, Bidvertiser) and they are alternative for Google adsense.
Commission Junctions, CPA way, shareasale are some of the affiliate programs. Google has google affiliate program now. In affiliate program you get money/commission if you make a sale.
There are other method of advertising now. Eg. Cost per lead, cost per action where there is no direct expenditure to our web site visitors. Commonly program sign ups, surveys and tool bar installation are the tasks.
I have tried most of these. Now I have realized that if we have a google adsense and google affiliate account, we need not to waste our time on other affiliate or adverting programs.
But many use amazon, e-bay and chtika along with google.