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The four Islamic Caliphs

Updated on March 12, 2015

Ali, Abu Bakr, Uthman and Umar are considered as the four rightly guided caliphs of Islam. The English word caliph represents the Islamic word for Khalifa, of which the latter is a short form for the word Khalifatu Rasulil-lah. All these are expressions for the successor to God’s massager, Prophet Muhammad. The first successor was Abu Bakr and was elected by the Muslim community after Prophet Muhammad rested in peace. Abu Bakr and the other three Caliphs guided the Muslim community in peace and they all had different levels of achievements and also portrayed several personality traits.

Abu Bakr

Having been nicknamed as a Carmel’s owner, Abu Bakr was a close friend to Prophet Muhammad. He accepted invitations to dine with him, lived a just life and was compassionate (Bowering, Crone & Mirza, 2013). At one time, Bakr gave out all his wealth to Muhammad, who was raising funds to support a war and alms for the poor. His strong faith in Allah, being a strong believer, was portrayed when Prophet Muhammad asked him what he had left for his family and he boldly replied that his family was under the care of Allah and the Prophets (Amazigh073, 2013). Abu Bark was also a courageous and determined leader. He assumed became a leader after the death of Muhammad. This is because he gave a very powerful speech of consolation to the Muslims whose faith wobbled after the Prophet had passed away (Amazigh073, 2013). He also bravely united the Muslims of Medina by safeguarding it against the splinter Muslims who rebelled against the teachings of Muhammad.

Umar

Having been born in a family that treasured knowledge, Umar was very good in his oratory skills, swordsmanship and wrestling. His vast knowledge made him be elected as the successor of Caliph Abu Bakr (Amazigh073, 2013). His conversion to Islam was very great and important because it united Muslims and drew others for conversion. It was important because in his early years, Umar had spent his early years abhorring Islam yet he embraced its truth (Amazigh073, 2013). Most of his achievements are that he expanded Islam, urged people to be humble, led by example in serving people and also emphasized on the essence of prayerfulness and righteousness in Muslims.

Uthman

Uthman succeeded caliph Umar. Immediately after his succession, Uthman participated in the battle of Trench and Uhud. His actions of war made him be detained by the Quarish of Mecca. Later, he finalised the treaty of Hudaibiya. The latter led to peaceful period of six months. Just like Abu Bakr and Umar, Uthman leadership was characterised of humane policies, impartial justice for all people, righteousness and the growth of his Caliphate. This is because he expanded Islam into Morocco, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the East of Afghanistan. He is famously known for his vast knowledge of the Quran, piety, honesty, generous, mild, and modest and a true believer of Islam (Bowering, Crone & Mirza, 2013).

Abu Bakr

Having been nicknamed as a Carmel’s owner, Abu Bakr was a close friend to Prophet Muhammad. He accepted invitations to dine with him, lived a just life and was compassionate (Bowering, Crone & Mirza, 2013). At one time, Bakr gave out all his wealth to Muhammad, who was raising funds to support a war and alms for the poor. His strong faith in Allah, being a strong believer, was portrayed when Prophet Muhammad asked him what he had left for his family and he boldly replied that his family was under the care of Allah and the Prophets (Amazigh073, 2013). Abu Bark was also a courageous and determined leader. He assumed became a leader after the death of Muhammad. This is because he gave a very powerful speech of consolation to the Muslims whose faith wobbled after the Prophet had passed away (Amazigh073, 2013). He also bravely united the Muslims of Medina by safeguarding it against the splinter Muslims who rebelled against the teachings of Muhammad.

Umar

Having been born in a family that treasured knowledge, Umar was very good in his oratory skills, swordsmanship and wrestling. His vast knowledge made him be elected as the successor of Caliph Abu Bakr (Amazigh073, 2013). His conversion to Islam was very great and important because it united Muslims and drew others for conversion. It was important because in his early years, Umar had spent his early years abhorring Islam yet he embraced its truth (Amazigh073, 2013). Most of his achievements are that he expanded Islam, urged people to be humble, led by example in serving people and also emphasized on the essence of prayerfulness and righteousness in Muslims.

Uthman

Uthman succeeded caliph Umar. Immediately after his succession, Uthman participated in the battle of Trench and Uhud. His actions of war made him be detained by the Quarish of Mecca. Later, he finalised the treaty of Hudaibiya. The latter led to peaceful period of six months. Just like Abu Bakr and Umar, Uthman leadership was characterised of humane policies, impartial justice for all people, righteousness and the growth of his Caliphate. This is because he expanded Islam into Morocco, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the East of Afghanistan. He is famously known for his vast knowledge of the Quran, piety, honesty, generous, mild, and modest and a true believer of Islam (Bowering, Crone & Mirza, 2013).

Ali

Having been renowned as a great scholar of the Arabic literature, Ali was also a brave Caliph. He frequently read Quranic verses and mastered their hidden meanings quickly, supported the other Caliphs: Umar, Uthman and Abu Bakr in their chores and swore to protect Islam (Bowering, Crone & Mirza, 2013). This was depicted in how he slept in Muhammad’s bed after learning that people wanted to kill the Prophet, endured all the problems experienced by Muslims and participated in the battles of Uhud and Kaybar. His Arabic expressions led to the creation of many Islamic Literatures (Bowering, Crone &

Reference list

Amazigh073. (2013). The Rightly Guided Caliphs. Retrieved on 12th March 2015 from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jf8mXODfU7c&list=PLiiv4K9lP671JevDe2iWWkukfQji73jhx

Bowering, G., Crone, P., Mirza, M. (2013).The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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