4 Techniques of Evaluation
1. Determining the Purpose of the Evaluation
Here the evaluator is supposed to ask himself why is the program being evaluated. It is only after determining the general purpose when the evaluator can have a clear reference and evidence, concerning the area of study. The evaluator is supposed to being by specifying his judgments and his decisions which will help him in establishing a definite purpose of his evaluation.
2. Formulation of the Program Objectives
The program objectives should be stated in terms of the desired changes in the ways in which the learners can behave, or will typically behave. The objectives should be stated in clear operational terms i.e. in a way which allows easy measurement in terms of quantity, volume, length etc. There are two kinds of objectives being, the definite and the indefinite The former objects are measurable and hey are not specific. Usually a good evaluation is possible in either of them.
3. Identification of Source of Information
Identification of source of information needed, when and how to obtain the information. By when it is meant either before, during or after the project's execution. On the-other hand, he has to decide on how to reduce the amount of data to be collected from primary source relying where possible on easily accessible secondary sources.
4. Decision on the Research Design
The evaluator has to decide on the research design for the information which will need to be collected from primary source using the progress indicators.
Consideration should be paid to the following aspects:
- Unit of research (individual, household or community)
- Sample selection: size, randomness or repentantly,
- Data collection techniques: Different data collecting methodologies are used with the help of working tools in collecting the information. Such tools include, interviews, questionnaires, observation, group discussion, individual record keeping (documentation) and physical measurement.
Although prepared instruments for use at various stages will contribute much in measuring the effectiveness, such instruments should be pretested before they can be used. It must be noted that each instrument has its own advantages and disadvantages, a caution is, therefore, given before the working tools. Below are the explanations of four of these interments including their advantages and limitations.
- Interviews: It is a method whereby the evaluator/ researcher talks to the respondents. It can take the process of "oral interview" where they both talk face to face.
- Questionnaire: Questionnaires are set of questions which are either sent or mailed to selected respondents to answer at their own connivance and return to dully filled in forms to the evaluator/researcher or could be administrated by the evaluator/researcher himself/herself in the form of interview.
- Observation: It is an act of getting the information through looking. It can either be an act participating actively in the group generally referred to as observation such is the case with anthropologists. It can also be observation without participating usually referred to :Non-participant observation" such is the case with a child psychologist who observe the interaction between mother and child. Also observation can take the form of laboratory condition where the observer i snot seen but records the event of his study.
- Documentation: This relates to the review of literature which others have done in the field. Such information include, people who were studied (population samples.) How were they sampled and what were the results of the study. This is the basic stage before an evaluator researcher involves himself fully in the evaluation process. Moreover method demands a lot of time and efforts to study the other people's reports from available records. Here there is the problem of the state of our records in libraries.