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ADI Part 3 Lesson Plan Example PST 5 (PHASE 1) MIRRORS AND EMERGENCY STOP
- briefing on emergency stop/mirrors,
- quick reactions,
- use of foot brake/clutch,
- mirrors, vision and use,
- mirrors, direction, overtaking and stopping,
- mirror, signal, manoeuvre.
Have you ever had to perform an emergency stop?
The Lesson Plan
As with any lesson, it is always wise to recap what the pupil has previously learnt and then link or transfer these skills by incorporating them into the new lesson.
You can now ask the pupil to run through the cockpit drill. Focus on the mirrors and ask the pupil what they can see, what they are looking for etc. You can follow on with a short question and answer session.
Q&A on mirrors
- Why do you check the mirrors?
We check our mirrors to assess what is going on around us, this enables us to see the situations unfolding around us.
- When do you check the mirrors?
Every time the situation around us changes, for example; joining a new road, changing speed, changing road position, approaching obstructions or when our view is restricted etc.
- Which mirrors do you use when moving to the left/ right and why?
When moving to the left we need to check our inside and left mirror, and when moving to the right we check our inside and right side mirror. We check these mirrors for any following vehicles who may try to over or undertake us. It could be dangerous to turn if a vehicle is beside us when we turn. If we see a vehicle next to us when we are about to turn, we will wait and NOT turn until the vehicle next to us moves away.
- What are blind spots?
The blind spots are an area where a person's view is obstructed.
- Where are the blind spots?
In this vehicle the blind spots are.... (show the pupil the blind spots and check they know where they are by asking relevant questions, for example, can you see the...)
- What is the difference between flat and convex glass?
The view through a flat mirror (inside/ interior mirror) gives you a true view of what is happening behind you whereas a convex mirror (left and right side mirrors) gives the appearance of objects being smaller than they actually are. You can check this by looking at an object through both mirrors and comparing the difference.
- What is the routine called that mirrors form part of?
MSM- mirror, signal, manoeuvre.
Aims & Objectives
- By the end of this lesson you will have a good understanding of why we check the mirrors and when to check mirrors with little or no help from me,
- You will also have practiced the emergency stop, safely and under full control.
You should now ask the pupil if they have any questions.
Ask the pupil to drive on when they are ready.
During the drive focus on the mirrors, and correct any faults on the way.
Once you have driven for a while, and have found a good place to practice the emergency stop, ask the pupil to pull over so you can give the briefing. Before you give the briefing, take this opportunity to ask the pupil how they felt the drive went, also give the pupil feedback regarding their drive and recap any faults you corrected.
The Emergency Stop Briefing
We are now going to discuss the emergency stop procedure and then practice it.
In the event of an emergency, for example if a pedestrian appears in the road in front of your vehicle, you will need to stop very quickly. This is the only occasion when you don't follow the mirrors-signal-manoeuvre routine. If you check the mirrors before stopping in an emergency, you will lose crucial seconds and in turn this will cause you to stop later.
In normal circumstances the safest way to brake is to do so early and lightly, by using progressive braking. In an emergency, brake immediately, but try to avoid braking so harshly that you lock your wheels. Locked wheels can lead to loss of control.
- Do you know what ABS means?
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a vehicles safety system. It allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain contact with the road surface. It prevents the wheels from locking up and avoids uncontrolled skidding.
- Do you know what skidding is, and how to correct a simple skid?
Skidding is usually caused by the driver braking, accelerating or steering too harshly or driving too fast for the road conditions. If skidding occurs, remove the cause by releasing the brake pedal fully or easing off the accelerator. Turn the steering wheel in the direction of the skid. For example, if the rear of the vehicle skids to the right, steer immediately to the right to recover.
When you drive on, you may see me looking around, don't worry. I am checking to see if it is safe to practice the emergency stop. I will then give you the signal to 'Stop'. (Show the pupil how you will give the 'Stop' signal, so there are no surprises)
On this command, release the accelerator pedal and slide your right foot across to the brake pedal. Apply firm pressure to the brake pedal but still use progressive braking. When the brakes are on the point of locking, hold the pedal still, then as the car slows to a standstill, gradually release the pressure. With your left foot, push the clutch down to avoid stalling the vehicle and travelling forward any further.
During braking, brace yourself by keep both hands firmly on the steering wheel and keep the car in a straight line. Be alert for the first signs of the wheels locking up and if the vehicle does begin to skid, ease off the brake pedal, but don't release it completely, then re-apply the pressure.
Once the car has come to a complete stop, you must apply the handbrake. This is to minimize the risk of being pushed forward in the event of another vehicle hitting us from behind. You are now ready to use the POM procedure. Prepare the vehicle by selecting first gear, setting the gas, and finding the biting point. Observe by looking all around your vehicle, starting behind and working clockwise around the vehicle, looking for any movement around the car. Don't forget to check the blind spots.
Any questions? When you are ready, drive on.
(remember when practicing the emergency stop, watch the pupils eyes, hands and feet. Pull the pupil over after every emergency stop to debrief them and continue to practice until it is correct.)