AP/IB Biology Tutorial Online Class: Lesson 1
Hey, this is my AP/IB Biology online class in which I will try to cover everything you need to know to do well on the test. I just finished taking my IB exams and now I am essentially DONE with high school. With my Biology knowledge still fresh in my head, I'll create a beginning to end tutorial for IB and AP Biology.
Biology is not to be memorized word for word. Convert words into mental pictures and movies and remember in your own words.
What is Science/Biology?
- Science means "to know" in latin
- Science is a way of understanding reality
- Science is systematic and has a method for determining what is true
- Science changes based on newer observations and corrects what may be wrong
- Modern molecular Biology and Biochemistry influence medicine and agriculture
- Biology is an integral part for understanding human healthy and society
A few applications of biology
- Genetic Engineering
- Forensic Science
- Human Genome Project
- Animal Cloning
All living things are organized
- All living things are made of cells (Some are 1 cell, some have multiple cells)
- Cells may divide and become other cells
- All living things have a metabolism
- All living things grow
- All living things must balance must balance their internal cellular environment. This is called homeostasis
- ex: Controlling the amount of water within cells, heat, Carbon Dioxide concentration, etc
- All living things must reproduce
- Life must come from life (excluding the first cell. I will discuss miler-urey experiment later)
- Reproduction may be asexual (ex: Cells like bacteria split in two called binary fission)
- All living things have DNA.
- A section of DNA that codes for a particular trait (ex: Blood type) is called a Gene
- Mutation occurs in genes
- Reproduction may be sexual
- This requires fertilization (Male Sperm joins with Female egg to become a zygote)
- The organism has genes from both parents
- This allows for more genetic Variation
Living things must adapt to their surroundings
Genotype - How the genes are assembled
Phenotype - The physical characteristics due to the genotype
Small to Big
Atoms make up molecules which make up organelles which make up cells which make up tissue which make up organs which make up organ systems which make up organisms which make up a species which make up a population which make up a community.
A community and abiotic enviornment (non-living such as rocks and rivers) make up an ecosystem which make up the biosphere (the entire earth)
- All living things need energy to survive
- Producers (plants, algae, photosynthetic bacteria, etc) convert sun light (radient energy) into chemical energy (Carbohydrates and sugar) which is transfered to consumers (the things that eat the producers
- Decomposer (Bacteria, fungi, protists, etc) releases wasted energy from dead organic matter (a dead fish, poop, etc)