African Wild Dogs: Attractive and Endangered Animals
The African Wild Dog
African wild dogs are lean, long-legged, and attractive animals that live in Sub-Saharan Africa. They have a mottled coat and are sometimes known as painted dogs or as Cape hunting dogs. The animals live in packs and are very social. They are completely carnivorous and hunt cooperatively for their prey. Unfortunately, they are an endangered species.
The scientific name of the African wild dog is Lycaon pictus. It's the only living member of the Lycaon genus. As its common name suggests, it belongs to the dog family, or the Canidae. It looks very different from the domestic dog and from the wolves and coyotes of North America, however. These animals belong to the family Canidae but the genus Canis. African wild dogs have a colourful and unique appearance.
Once the African wild dog has been mentioned at least once in an article, it's sometimes referred to by the abbreviated term "dog". As the scientific names given above show, however, the animal is not closely related to the domestic dog. The term "wild dog" doesn't mean that the animal is a domestic dog that has become wild.
The coat of an African wild dog contains beautiful splotches of white, grey, black, brown, tan, and yellow hair. Each animal has a distinctive coat pattern. The tip of the tail is always white, however. The hair is generally short but is longer around the neck. The dog's muzzle is black. There is a black stripe extending up the face from the muzzle. The erect ears are large and rounded and are often described as “bat-like”.
African wild dogs are 24 to 30 inches in height, measured from the ground to the shoulder, and weigh between 37 and 80 pounds. Males are generally larger than females. The animals have long and thin legs. They are the only members of their family without dewclaws and have four toes on each foot. Other members of the family Canidae have four toes on each hind foot but five toes on each forefoot. Four of the toes on a forefoot touch the ground, while one—the dewclaw—is higher up and doesn't touch the ground.
No two wild dogs are marked exactly the same.— African Wildlife Foundation
Social Life in the Pack
African wild dogs live in packs that usually contain 6 to 20 animals. In general, only the alpha male and female (the dominant dogs) breed. All of the animals play a role in the pack's daily life, however.
The animals exhibit intricate greeting rituals. They touch noses, lick each other, and chirp, whine, and squeal as they interact. This interaction is often seen right before a hunt. As the animals circulate in the pack before they start their hunt, they greet their companions, wag their tails, run, leap, and become more and more excited.
Although African wild dogs are fierce hunters, they show no or very little aggression towards other members of their pack, even when they're eating their prey. Researchers have observed that when young dogs are involved in a hunt, the adults will let the youngsters feed on the prey first. The researchers have also observed the animals feeding old, sick, or injured members of their pack.
African wild dogs feed peacefully after a hunt, and all members share in the feast.— Wildlife Conservation Society
Life in a Wild Dog Pack in South Africa
African wild dogs are found in grassland, savanna, highland forest, and semi-desert habitats. They generally hunt at dawn and dusk. Their usual prey is antelope such as gazelles, but they will also attack larger prey such as young zebras, wildebeest, and warthogs as well as smaller animals like rodents and birds. The mottled colouring of the dogs confuses their prey. The dogs' large ears provide excellent hearing and also help to cool the animals down.
African wild dogs run at speeds of up to 35 miles an hour. Occasionally, they reach 40 miles an hour. They can run for a long time without tiring. The animals communicate during a hunt with high pitched chirping sounds. They also emit a call that travels long distances in order to keep in touch. They have been observed hunting in relays, with the lead animals changing during the hunt.
It’s estimated that wild dog hunts end in success 70 to 90 percent of the time. This is a very high success rate compared to that of lions, who are believed to successfully obtain prey in only 30 to 40 percent of their attempts.
African wild dogs have a strong bite and bring down their prey quickly. They kill by disemboweling large prey rather than grabbing the neck and suffocating it, as lions do. This method of killing has been seen as especially cruel by some people and has given the dogs a bad reputation, but researchers say that it's actually a quicker way to kill the prey than the suffocation method.
Puppies at the Chicago Zoo
Reproduction and Life Stages
The gestation period of an African wild dog is about two and a half months. There are generally between ten and sixteen babies in a litter, but some may die. The babies are born in an underground den and have black coats with white spots. When they are very young and need their mother's full time attention, other members of the pack regurgitate food to feed the mother in the den.
The pups open their eyes about thirteen days after birth. Weaning happens when they are about eleven weeks old. Once the youngsters are weaned, other members of the pack—both males and females—help to feed them. The adults regurgitate food to give to the babies. When the adults in the pack leave to hunt for food, a few stay behind as babysitters for the pups. Unless there are puppies to take care of, the pack doesn’t stay in one place for very long. The pack lives a nomadic life except in the few months needed to raise the young.
Males pups generally stay with the pack in which they were born, but all of the females leave to join another pack when they are around two years old. The emigrating females generally stay together as they search for a group of unrelated males to join. The successful union of the females and males forms a new pack. Occasionally the male pups leave their natal pack as well. African wild dogs generally live between nine and eleven years but have lived for as long as thirteen years in zoos.
When opposite-sex groups join, they undergo what has been termed a "trial courtship" that may or may not result in the formation of a stable reproductive unit.— African Wild Dog Conservancy
African Wild Dogs at the Houston Zoo
According to the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), the last population assessment of African wild dogs was carried out in 2012. The assessment estimated that there were 6,600 adult dogs at that time. Only 1,400 of this number were classified as mature. The researchers defined "adult" individuals as those aged one or older and "mature" individuals as those that reproduced in the season in which the count was completed.
The estimate of the number of mature individuals was challenging. Normally, only the alpha male and female in a pack reproduce. The other adults in the pack are capable of reproduction but are generally reproductively suppressed. Sometimes subordinate members of the pack do mate and have pups, however. In addition, since helpers take care of the babies (a behaviour known as cooperative breeding), it's sometimes hard to know who the parents are.
An Alpha Male and Female
Threats to Survival
A major problem for African wild dogs today is habitat fragmentation. The animals were once distributed over a much wider area and their population was continuous over this area. Now the dogs are found in isolated populations, which reduces genetic mixing. Mixing of genes helps to maintain a healthy population.
Another problem is that the dogs are being shot, poisoned, and trapped by farmers who want to protect their animals. Although wild dogs have attacked unprotected farm animals in some areas, researchers say that they are often falsely assumed to be the culprit when farm animals are killed.
Poaching is also a problem for the dogs. They are caught in snares set for other animals, which are illegally trapped for meat. Some dogs are killed by road traffic or by lions.
An additional challenge for the African wild dog is the introduction of diseases carried by domestic dogs into the wild dog packs. These diseases include rabies and distemper. Since wild dogs are such social animals and greet each other by licking, if even one animal is infected by disease the infection will quickly spread through the whole pack.
It's hard to create a fence that's foolproof against African wild dog attacks on livestock. One researcher has discovered that urine obtained from another pack is a deterrent to wild dogs, however. Artificial scent marking may be useful as a repellent in the future.
African Wild Dogs and Dead Prey
Conservation organizations are studying African wild dogs, working to preserve the population, and trying to educate the public about ways to protect livestock. In addition, they are training local people to monitor and protect the dog population. Anti-poaching, rehabilitation, and re-introduction projects are underway.
Conservationists are also trying to increase the land available for wild dogs. When the animals are confined to a small area, it may be harder to find suitable prey. There is also a higher chance that the dogs will come into conflict with humans or pick up diseases from domestic or feral animals.
The latest population estimate is higher than the 1997 one, which suggested that only 3000 to 5500 animals exist. The most recent survey may indicate that the population is growing, but it may simply reflect the fact that the 2012 assessment was more accurate than the 1997 one. African wild dogs are still classified as endangered. Conservation efforts are therefore very important. Hopefully they will be successful and this unique and very interesting animal will survive.
- "African Wild Dog." World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. http://www.waza.org/en/zoo/visit-the-zoo/dogs-and-hyenas/lycaon-pictus (accessed September 8, 2017).
- "African Wild Dog." World Wildlife Fund. http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/teacher_resources/best_place_species/current_top_10/african_wild_dog.cfm (accessed September 8, 2017).
- "Lycaeon pictus." International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/12436/0 (accessed September 8, 2017).
- The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). "Saving Africa's wild dogs -- with urine." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140620103129.htm (accessed September 7, 2017).
© 2011 Linda Crampton