ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Age of second urbanization – Indus Valley Civilization

Updated on September 7, 2016

Indus valley

Indus valley civilization tools

Indus Valley Civilization

It was only during the period of Mahajanapadas that the towns started emerging again. From about 400 BC many factors led to the growth of cities. These factors were intensification of agriculture and increase in trade and commerce. This period is called by historians as the Age of Second Urbanization.

A tremendous growth was witnessed during this period of second urbanization in two areas agriculture and trade. Both internal and external trade flourished. This rise was given an impetus by the use of money. Arts and crafts also furnished. These factors encouraged the growth of towns and cities. The developments had one thing in common – the use of iron.

The use of iron began in the sub – continent around 3,000 years ago. The growth in the use of iron tools can be traced back around 2,500 years ago. Iron tools like axes were used for clearing forests, and the ploughshare was used the increase the agriculture production.

Agricultural developments

The largest collection of iron tools and weapons has been discovered at the megalithic burial sites of the Chalcoithic Age.

Once the land was cleared and made fit for agriculture the plough-share was used for ploughing. Now, the next step was irrigation. Canals were dug to carry water from the rivers to the fields. Artificial tanks were also constructed. Water was released from these tanks and rivers into canals that fed the fields with water. Agricultural produces increased tremendously.

Blacksmith were in great demand and it became a specialized skill. The technique used for making iron was applied to make things of glass, ivory, beads, bones and shells.

Indus civilization crafts

Features of this period

Pali and Sanskrit books give detailed information about flourishing towns. Some of them were Pataliputra, Rajagriha, Ayodhya, Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti. The main features of this period were :- 1) use of iron tools and implements. 2) use of northern Black polished ware. 3) use of burnt brick. 4) use of metal money. 5) expansion of agriculture because of better tools and improved methods of irrigation. 6) use of ring wells as toilets or drain pipes or garbage bins. 9Ring wells are rows of ceramic rings placed one on top of the other).

Residents of the village

In the southern and the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, there were at least three different kinds of people. Large landowners in the Tamil region were known as Velour, ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar and landless laborers, including slaves were known as kadaisiyar and adimai.

The village headman was known as the Grama Bhojaka in the northern part of the country. The post was hereditary and usually men from the same family, held the position for generations. The Grama Bhojaka was often the largest landowner. He had slaves and hired workers to cultivate the land. He was given power, he also collected taxes from the villages on the order of the king. He also functioned as a judge, and sometimes as a policeman.

Indus Valley civilization is 8000 years old

Craft people

It is clear that archaeological evidences for many crafts may not have survived. From literary evidence, we came to know that the manufacturing of cloth was important. There were famous centers such as Varanasi in the north, and Madurai in the south Both men and women worked in these centers.

Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) was another important type of pottery. It is black in color and exhibits a very fine polish or sheen. It was first produced around 500 BC in the Ganga valley and was largely used throughout the Mauryan Empire.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)