ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Roman General - Gnaeus Julius Agricola

Updated on November 2, 2009

Gnaeus Julius Agricola (40-93 A.D.), general and governor of Roman Britain. His career, typical for a competent administrator of imperial Rome, was eulogized by his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus, in the Agricola. Agricola was born in Forum Julii, now Frejus, in Provence, France. Thus he typified imperial provincials, rising to high posts. Through his ability and connections he became a quaestor in Asia, senator, tribune of the plebs, praetor, consul, pontifex, and legate (governor) of Aquitania. In each office he showed intelligence, integrity, and political common sense.

His career centered mainly in Britain, however. In 61, Agricola, as tribunus militum (staff officer), joined a victorious attack on the Druid stronghold on Mona (Anglesey) and then faced a widespread revolt led by Queen Boadicea (Boudicca). Though the Romans had to with­draw from the cities, their disciplined legions annihilated 80,000 Britons. The victory broke the anti-Roman confederacy but turned Roman policy for a decade from expansion to consolidation.

In the civil wars of 68-69, Agricola declared for Vespasian, and from 71 to 73 he was legate of the XX Legion in Britain. Vespasian had reactivated the aggressive policy in Britain, and Agricola proved his generalship in hard fighting against the powerful Brigantes. From 78 to 84 he was legate of Britain. Like other able legates before him he made great strides in Romanizing conquered Britain, building cities, schools, and roads and cultivating Roman ways. He crushed a revolt in Wales and Mona and established permanent order in the mountainous region. He next secured Britain's west coast with a strategically engineered chain of forts and roads. The emperor Domitian then authorized campaigns in the Scottish Highlands. At Mons Graupius, in 84, Agricola defeated the Scots, who retreated to the Highlands. Total conquest of Scotland seemed possible; but Domitian, awarding Agricola high honors, recalled him to Rome and withdrew legionnaires from Britain to fight on the Rhine. This ended the Flavian advance in Britain. Agricola's forts were gradually abandoned and north Britain remained independent. He left a legacy of military security, conscientious administration, and Romanization that drew Britain more firmly into the empire.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)