Akbar was the great success of Mughal emperors
Akbar's Tomb - Sikandra, India
Third Mughal Emperor – Akbar The Great
The Muslim Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great married the Hindu Rajput ...
Akbar was the great Mughal emperor
In 1595 Akbar had become the undisputed – emperor of the territory extending from Hindu Kush in the west to the river Brahmaputra in the east and from the Himalayas in the north to the river Godavari in the south. Assam, Orissa, the greater part of the Deccan and the far south remained out of his empire. He then established a sound administration, which brought peace and prosperity to the Mughal Empire.
The empire was divided into fifteen provinces known as subhash with subedars as their heads. The subedars exercised civil as well as military powers. Another important official in the provinces was the divan who looked after department of revenue and expenditure.
The Provinces were divided into parganas or districts which had further sub – divisions down to the village level.
Akbar's religious policy
Akbar is famous for following a policy of tolerance towards all religions. He gave freedom to all to practice their own faiths. In matters concerning Islam, he declared his own decision to be final in cases in which their disputes between the Ulemas (Islamic scholars). He won the admiration of his non – Muslim subjects for his policy of religious tolerance. His policy of giving high offices in the state to Rajputs and other Hindus also helped him to keep his Muslim officials in check. Historians look upon Akbar as wise and far -sighted ruler whose policies created a sense of loyalty towards the Mughal dynasty among the people. It helped the Mughals to rule the country for a period of two hundred years.
He also tried to promote harmony between different religious groups by encouraging them to participate in each other's festivals. But, above all, Akbar wanted to promote a religious code which would bring followers of all religions together. He called this code the Din – I – Ilahi. However, he never forced anyone to convert to his religion.
Though Akbar was influenced by the doctrines of many religions, the effect of Hinduism on him was more pronounced. He forbade the killing of animals on certain days. In the royal household all Hindu queens continued to follow and practise Hinduism, Raksha Bandhan, a Hindu festival, became more popular during his reign.
Special state patronage to the old – fashioned Arabic learning was reduced and the study of philosophy, astronomy, medicine, mathematics, history and literature was encouraged. However, all this did not mean that he became an opponent of Islam. He ordered that the history of Islam from the passing away of the Prophet to his times should be compiled.
Akbar the Great (lived from 1542 AD to 1605
Akbar the great
Akbar was the greatest emperor of all the Mughals
Soon after coming to the throne he had to face the challenge of the Afghans who had recaptured most of their lost territories. After defeating them in the decisive Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, he succeeded in conquering all other territories which has formed parts of the kingdom of Babur or Humayun, and made fresh conquests to build a large empire with a strong government His conquests in the south resulted in the annexation of territories of Bundelkhand, Malwa and Gondwana to the Mughal empire. In the Deccan, the ruler of Khandesh submitted to him voluntarily but Akbar and only limited success against the kingdom of Ahmednagar (in Karnataka).
In this treatment of the Rajput rulers Akbar departed from the policy of the earlier sultans of Delhi and adopted a carrot and stick policy. The ruler, who voluntarily submitted to him, paid tribute and, in a large number of cases, offered their daughter's in marriage to members of the Mughal royal family, were offered high posts in the Mughal army administration. Those who resisted, were defeated in battle and forced to submit. The majority of the Rajput rulers submitted voluntarily and were rewarded. The exception was Rana Pratap who heroically kept fighting even though he was chased by the Mughal army through the jungles of Mewar for a number of years. The Rajput kingdoms of Gwalior, Ranthambore and Kalinjar which too had resisted him were conquered and annexed.
His other conquests in western, northern and north – western India included Gujarat, Sindh, Balochistan, Kashmir and Kabul. In the east. Bihar and Bengal were annexed though Bengal remained a source of trouble during the reign of his descendants.