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Alexander the Great: Facts and Timeline
Also known as: Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon, Megas Alexandros(Greek), Eskandar-e Maqduni (means Alexander of Macedonia in Persian),Alexander Mokdon (Hebrew),Tre-Qarnayia (means the two-horned one in Aramaic), al-Iskandar al-Akbar (means Alexander the Great in Arabic), Sikandar-e-azam (means expert or extremely skilled in Urdu), Skandar (Pashto - Pakistan and Afghanistan language).
Born: July 20, 356 BC. Pella, Macedon.
Died: Around June 10, 323 BC. Babylon.
Father: Phillip II of Macedon. But according to the legend, Alexander was the son of Zeus.
Mother: Olympias, princess of Epirus/Epirote. Her true name was Myrtale.
Closest friends: Hephaestion, Alexander life-long friend who fight alongside Alexander in many wars for almost 11 years. Bucephalus, Alexander's loyal horse which accompanied Alexander for almost 20 years.
Personal hero: Achilles.
(Visit whentheworldisgoingcrazy.blogspot.com for more complete list of people around Alexander)
356 - The birth of Alexander the Great
343 - Aristotle becomes Alexander's tutor
340 - Alexander becomes regent
344 - Alexander meeting with the beautiful and spirited Bucephalus.
339 - Alexander joins Philip on campaign
338 - Battle of Chaeronea
338/337 - Philip marries Cleopatra Eurydice (Phillip's fourth and last wife)
336 - Darius becomes King of Persia; Philip murdered in Cleopatra's (Alexander's sister) wedding; Alexander becomes King of Macedonia
335 - Cleopatra Eurydice commit suicide due to murder of her son (Caranus/Keranos) and her daughter (Europa); Alexander Greek campaign.
334 - Battle of Granicus
333 - Battle of Issus; the Gordian Knot event.
332 - Siege of Tyre; Alexander crowned Pharaoh of Egypt
331 - Alexander visits Oracle at Siwah; Battle of Gaugamela
330 - Burning of Persepolis; Darius murdered; Parmenio murdered
329 - Crossing Hindu Kush
328 - Alexander murders Cleitus
327 - Alexander marries Roxanne of Sogdiana; Pages conspiracy; Callisthenes killed
326 - Battle of Jhelum; Alexander's army mutinies
325 - Alexander wounded by the Malli; Makran Desert journey; Death of Bucephalus
324 - Hephaestion's death; Mass marriages in Susa
323 - Alexander the Great's death; Birth of Alexander the Great's son: Alexander Aegus or Alexander IV.
"Fortune favors the bold."
"Sex and sleep alone make me conscious that I am mortal."
"There is nothing impossible to him who will try."
"I would rather live a short life of glory than a long one of obscurity"
"It's better to burn out than fade away"
"How great are the dangers I face to win a good name in Athens."
"A tomb now suffices him for whom the whole world was not sufficient."
"I am dying from the treatment of too many physicians."
"I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well."
"Persian women are painful to my eyes"
"I do not separate people, as do the narrow-minded, into Greeks and barbarians. I am not interested in the origin or race of citizens. I only distinguish them on the basis of their virtue. For me each good foreigner is a Greek and each bad Greek is worse than a barbarian."
"I am paying my mother extraordinarily high rent for nine months of dwelling" -when he was bombarded by complaints and accusations about Antipater and his associates in Pella. Perhaps, he should have listened more carefully after all....
"I send you a kaffis of mustard seed, that you may taste and acknowledge the bitterness of my victory." -in letter for King Darius III of Persia.
"I will not steal a victory. The end and perfection of our victories is to avoid the vices and infirmities of those whom we subdue."
"I would rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent than in the extent of my powers and dominion."
"Is it not worthy of tears that, when the number of worlds is infinite, we have not yet become lords of a single one?" -When asked why he wept on hearing there was an infinite number of worlds, from On the Tranquillity of the Mind, by Plutarch.
"In faith and hope the world will disagree, But all mankind's concern is charity."
"Remember, upon the conduct of each depends the fate of all."
"If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes."
Alexander in my eyes
Some theories, a few of historians, a couple of people, believe that Alexander and Hephaestion were lovers, that Hephaestion was Alexander's lover. But, there never was any vivid evidence to support this theory. Of course, there were times Alexander said that he love Hephaestion, but I can also say that I love my best friend (of the same gender). And that controversial word "companion" (in Greek) with which Alexander use to refer Hephaestion, is so doubtable. We cannot exactly claim that the word means "lover". In my opinion, Alexander did love Hephaestion so much, but merely as a best friend.
They grew up together. Tthey fight so many wars together, for almost 11 years. So even though Alexander hugged Hephaestion, or even kissed him, it must be only in friendship manner.
My other argument: Alexander did love and marry a girl, Roxanna of Sogdiana. And not to mention many other girls for political reasons [but he certainly did sleep with them :-)]. So, he can't be gay! <- desperate. His friendship with Hephaestion is simply like David's with Jonathan:
"...You were very dear to me. Your love for me was wonderful, more wonderful that that of women." - 2 Samuel 1:26