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Alexander the Great: Facts and Timeline

Updated on April 9, 2013

Also known as: Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon, Megas Alexandros(Greek), Eskandar-e Maqduni (means Alexander of Macedonia in Persian),Alexander Mokdon (Hebrew),Tre-Qarnayia (means the two-horned one in Aramaic), al-Iskandar al-Akbar (means Alexander the Great in Arabic), Sikandar-e-azam (means expert or extremely skilled in Urdu), Skandar (Pashto - Pakistan and Afghanistan language).

Born: July 20, 356 BC. Pella, Macedon.

Died: Around June 10, 323 BC. Babylon.

Father: Phillip II of Macedon. But according to the legend, Alexander was the son of Zeus.

Mother: Olympias, princess of Epirus/Epirote. Her true name was Myrtale.

Closest friends: Hephaestion, Alexander life-long friend who fight alongside Alexander in many wars for almost 11 years. Bucephalus, Alexander's loyal horse which accompanied Alexander for almost 20 years.

Personal hero: Achilles.

(Visit for more complete list of people around Alexander)

Alexander's lifetime

356 - The birth of Alexander the Great

343 - Aristotle becomes Alexander's tutor

340 - Alexander becomes regent

344 - Alexander meeting with the beautiful and spirited Bucephalus.

339 - Alexander joins Philip on campaign

338 - Battle of Chaeronea

338/337 - Philip marries Cleopatra Eurydice (Phillip's fourth and last wife)

336 - Darius becomes King of Persia; Philip murdered in Cleopatra's (Alexander's sister) wedding; Alexander becomes King of Macedonia

335 - Cleopatra Eurydice commit suicide due to murder of her son (Caranus/Keranos) and her daughter (Europa); Alexander Greek campaign.

334 - Battle of Granicus

333 - Battle of Issus; the Gordian Knot event.

332 - Siege of Tyre; Alexander crowned Pharaoh of Egypt

331 - Alexander visits Oracle at Siwah; Battle of Gaugamela

330 - Burning of Persepolis; Darius murdered; Parmenio murdered

329 - Crossing Hindu Kush

328 - Alexander murders Cleitus

327 - Alexander marries Roxanne of Sogdiana; Pages conspiracy; Callisthenes killed

326 - Battle of Jhelum; Alexander's army mutinies

325 - Alexander wounded by the Malli; Makran Desert journey; Death of Bucephalus

324 - Hephaestion's death; Mass marriages in Susa

323 - Alexander the Great's death; Birth of Alexander the Great's son: Alexander Aegus or Alexander IV.


"Fortune favors the bold."

"Sex and sleep alone make me conscious that I am mortal."

"There is nothing impossible to him who will try."

"I would rather live a short life of glory than a long one of obscurity"

"It's better to burn out than fade away"

"How great are the dangers I face to win a good name in Athens."

"A tomb now suffices him for whom the whole world was not sufficient."

"I am dying from the treatment of too many physicians."

"I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well."

"Persian women are painful to my eyes"

"I do not separate people, as do the narrow-minded, into Greeks and barbarians. I am not interested in the origin or race of citizens. I only distinguish them on the basis of their virtue. For me each good foreigner is a Greek and each bad Greek is worse than a barbarian."

"I am paying my mother extraordinarily high rent for nine months of dwelling" -when he was bombarded by complaints and accusations about Antipater and his associates in Pella. Perhaps, he should have listened more carefully after all....

"I send you a kaffis of mustard seed, that you may taste and acknowledge the bitterness of my victory." -in letter for King Darius III of Persia.

"I will not steal a victory. The end and perfection of our victories is to avoid the vices and infirmities of those whom we subdue."

"I would rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent than in the extent of my powers and dominion."

"Is it not worthy of tears that, when the number of worlds is infinite, we have not yet become lords of a single one?" -When asked why he wept on hearing there was an infinite number of worlds, from On the Tranquillity of the Mind, by Plutarch.

"In faith and hope the world will disagree, But all mankind's concern is charity."

"Remember, upon the conduct of each depends the fate of all."

"If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes."


Alexander in my eyes

Some theories, a few of historians, a couple of people, believe that Alexander and Hephaestion were lovers, that Hephaestion was Alexander's lover. But, there never was any vivid evidence to support this theory. Of course, there were times Alexander said that he love Hephaestion, but I can also say that I love my best friend (of the same gender). And that controversial word "companion" (in Greek) with which Alexander use to refer Hephaestion, is so doubtable. We cannot exactly claim that the word means "lover". In my opinion, Alexander did love Hephaestion so much, but merely as a best friend.

They grew up together. Tthey fight so many wars together, for almost 11 years. So even though Alexander hugged Hephaestion, or even kissed him, it must be only in friendship manner.

My other argument: Alexander did love and marry a girl, Roxanna of Sogdiana. And not to mention many other girls for political reasons [but he certainly did sleep with them :-)]. So, he can't be gay! <- desperate. His friendship with Hephaestion is simply like David's with Jonathan:

"...You were very dear to me. Your love for me was wonderful, more wonderful that that of women." - 2 Samuel 1:26


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    • sunilkunnoth2012 profile image

      Sunil Kumar Kunnoth 

      6 years ago from Calicut (Kozhikode, South India)

      Wonderful information. Learning history is quite interesting and educative. I too have done some hubs on the topic. Thank you for sharing your knowledge.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      alexander is my hero, for me he is the greatest man that ever lived he achieved immortality(his name is glorious and inspirational even after his death) and he knew that he will die young but with glory.

      he never lost a battle because like he said "there is nothing impossible to him who will try"

    • profile image

      Phyllis Martin 

      8 years ago

      I am doing research about this era and find your information very well put together. I might say that the questions about Alexander's sexuality may be oversimplified. But, in my opinion, a comrade-in-arms--that person who fought beside you and saved your life--love of that person rarely compares to love of one's mate who is not a "comrade-in-arms." Also, remember that Alex's hero was Heracles--a rampant bi-sexual.

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      just because Alexander had relations with women it is very possiable for him to have been heterosexual. Meaning a lover of both women and men. Now back in the 4th century especially in greece it was very common practice to have relations with men. So one may never know if he truly was the lover of Hephaestion or not, but we shouldn't rule out the possiability completely either

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      well, I'm currently learning about Alexander the Great in my school, and i fancy him cause he's so brave and there's simply nothing that's impossible for him to do..he's a great hero of mine, btw, in from Maldives.. xD

    • profile image

      Alehander from Republic of Macedonia 

      11 years ago

      The nationality of Alexander the Great is Macedonian like Macedonians from Republic of Macedonia and Macedonian minority in Grecce an Bulgaria.

      Why Macedonia and the Macedonians had Never been Greek?

      1.The ancient Macedonians were a distinct nation, separate from their neighbors, the ancient Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians. The ancient Greek and Roman historians tell us that the Macedonians spoke a separate Macedonian language and had their own customs, culture, and traditions. Archeological discoveries confirm that the material culture of the Macedonians also defer greatly from all their neighbors, and it is by far more superior in artistry (gold, paintings, weapons, mosaics) then anything found in contemporary Greece, Illyria, and Thrace. The texts of the ancient writers distinguish the Macedonians from the ancient Greeks, just like they distinguish the Romans and the Carthaginians. Yet, like the other non-Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, Illyrians, and Thracians, the Macedonian high society also used the Greek language along with Macedonian. Greek was spoken by the nobility of many different ancient nations, just like French was spoken in the 19th century (at the German and Russian courts for example). Unfortunately there are only about 150 glosses that have survived of the ancient Macedonian language (most of them with no relation whatsoever with ancient Greek), and like ancient Carthaginian, Illyrian, and Thracian, it can not be reconstructed. There is no doubt nevertheless that the Illyrains, Thracians, and Macedonians were non-Greeks, or in the words of the ancient Greeks "barbarians" which literally means people who spoke other non-Greek languages.

      2. Macedonia became a world power when the Macedonian king Philip II conquered Thrace, greater part of Illyria, and the whole of Greece (except Sparta). At the battle of Chaeronea in 338, the Macedonian army destroyed the united Greek army, and put an end to Greek freedom and ancient Greek history. To secure the Macedonian conquest, Macedonian garrisons were established in the Greek cities, just like they were established in Thrace and Illyria.

    • profile image


      11 years ago

      Very interesting and valid facts on Alexander.I think a good many should consider that qoute homosexuality was not reallytaken into the same context it is today. Nobody will know for sure about that aspect and I think it's not greatly important.Secound, Alexander was as many said brave, bold, A rouge in his own era and with style of military tactics, he also had many lesser aspects that portrayed himas a drunk and so on. I think one thing that we can say and all agree apon is that Alexanders ambition was remarkable for the time period, where if you infactstudy much of the " Classic's " you'll see that most king's were not exhactly very classy individuals by today's standards. Each man his own positive and negative. He also genocided a good many greek.History is something that should be checked via a good many sources not justthose the victory's of a conquest or war as they are typically the writers of history.One should also take information from the those who were on the losing side and those who spectated or bared whitness.History is vast to say the least and with each ruling empire we find that each has come and gone, also on the comment of 250,000 vs 45,000.If you understand military tactics at all you would understand a few things.A. It is far more diffacult to have 250,000 excellent trained men.It also to add to that is much more diffacult to rally such man power.B. it is also in ones own favor to have 45,000 well fortified men who are allexcellent or well versified in the art of war.C. Sometimes history likes to also add to the numbers for shock value.Also one should consider that not much further on Macedon was invaded bya huge surge of Slavic peoples? Nobody talks of this.But indeed Alexander is indeed very interesting for many reasions.

    • profile image

      Dimi The Great 

      11 years ago

      for me alexander is my idol, he was smart, intelligent, and he was brave. he fought for honour and revenge. he showed how powerful greece could be when all citystaates were united in one country.

      there is no other man who had been greater than him. i only say:

      45 000 Greeks against 250 000 Persians and the winner........

    • profile image

      citc school 

      11 years ago

      ,,i think hephaestion is a gay because they kiss in lips...

    • profile image

      smart but anonymous ;P jk 

      11 years ago

      hmm alexander the great is pretty cool. after all he did conquer many countries and city-states. every mans dream. =) im doing research on him for a project. hes my hero too. thts why i picked him. anyway laters. oh yea and cool site by the way. goodluck with whatever and keep being interested. its better to be interested ih more than one main subject you know. find something else that interests you. im not saying forget alexander but leanr about others too. you might change your opinion who you like best. bye. =)

    • profile image

      smart but anonymous ;P jk 

      11 years ago

      hmm alexander the great is pretty cool. after all he did conquer many countries and city-states. every mans dream. =) im doing research on him for a project. hes my hero too. thts why i picked him. anyway laters. oh yea and cool site by the way. goodluck with whatever and keep being interested. its better to be interested ih more than one main subject you know. find something else that interests you. im not saying forget alexander but leanr about others too. you might change your opinion who you like best. bye. =)

    • greathub profile image


      11 years ago from Earth

      Do you know that Alexander's army's descendants live in Pakistan

    • Keti profile image


      12 years ago from Skopje, Macedonia

    • 360hub profile image

      the global hub of learning 

      12 years ago from Molde

      Hi again - if you read about 360degrees around the see that I have been involved in &quot;alexander related projects&quot; since 1996.

      I will write a hubpage on a Alexander....

    • Locutus profile image


      12 years ago

      Well done. I&#39;m from Macedonia and a really like the fact that people around the world are interested about Alexander The Macedonian.

    • Eva Berlin profile imageAUTHOR

      Eva Berlin 

      12 years ago

      Hi too! Well, there are many reasons why I like him, but one obvious thing, I adore him because of his confidence and his boldness.. Why do YOU fancy him?

    • 360hub profile image

      the global hub of learning 

      12 years ago from Molde

      Hi - we share a common interest in Alexander the Great. Why do you fancy him from the beginning?


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