- Education and Science»
- History & Archaeology»
- History of Europe
AElfred the Great, the Anglo-Saxon king who saved the English language
Alfred the Great 849 - 899 AD
Before there was William, Duke of Normandy, before there was Harold I of England, before there was the Battle of Hastings (1066), before there was William the Conquerer, there was Alfred the Great, also spelled AElfred, who was an Anglo-Saxon king, King of Wessex from 871-899. He successfully defended his kingdom against Viking and Danish conquests and by the time of his death he had united all of England under his rule.
He was the only Anglo-Saxon monarch to do this and the only English monarch ever to be given the name "the Great." He earned this name by his stalwart resistance of the Danes, by his wise government and law making, and by his revival in education and learning in English.
It was the historical writers of the 16th century who gave Alfred the moniker, "the great," rather than Alfred's contemporaries. "The Great" has always stuck because of Alfred's patriotism, success against barbarism, promotion of education, and the establishment of rule of law as supporting his ideals.
By defeating the Danes, Alfred assured that English would be the spoken language. Had he not defeated them, we most likely would be speaking Danish today.
Alfred was a man of vision and a man way ahead of his time as he was a soldier, strategist, scholar, patron of the arts, and a legal and bureaucratic reformer.
Alfred succeeded to the throne in 871 upon his brother's death. Alfred married Ealhswith, a noble woman from the royal house of Mercia in 867, therefore, building an alliance with Mercia. He never expected to become king because he had three older brothers. But his three older brothers all died in battle so Alfred became King of Wessex and actually he was the most promising of all the brothers.
What we know about Alfred comes from two Old English documents: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, which Alfred commissioned to be written and Vita AElfredi (The Life of King Alfred), a biography, written by his teacher and friend, Roman Catholic Bishop Asser
"of all the demands of present life, it has been the desire for wisdom more than anything else, together with the nobility of his birth, that have characterized the nature of his noble mind."
~ From, The Life of King Alfred by Bishop Asser
At the age of four (853) Alfred was sent to Rome and again in the year 855 possibly on a pilgrimage with his father, AEthelwulf. During these journeys, on the way to Rome and back, Alfred spend time in the court of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks, and the grandson of Charlemagne (France).
It was here that Alfred acquired knowledge and admiration for Charles and Charlemagne and their Carolingian revival (renaissance) of learning. He would tuck away these lessons and return to them later in his life and rule.
Alfred did not learn to read and write until the age of twelve which Bishop Asser, his biographer, called a "shameful negligence of his parents and tutors." In the Life of King Alfred, Asser wrote that Alfred was an excellent listener with an incredible memory and was able to retain poetry and psalms very well.
We also know from Asser's biography that Alfred suffered throughout his life with a painful and unpleasant illness. Asser described it so well in his biography that today doctors believe Alfred had either Crohn's disease or haemorrhoidal disease.
Alfred's father died in 858 and was succeeded in rapid succession by his eldest son AEthelbald, they by son number two, AEthelbert and then by son number three, AEthelred.
It was under AEthelred's rule that Alfred began learning the arts of war in the Anglo-Saxon's long-running battle against the Danes.
In the last years of the 8th century, England had been subject to raids by Vikings, the catch-all phrase for Scandinavian raiders or Norsemen. The Danes from Denmark fell into this category.
By the mid - 860's the Danish army invaded and landed in eastern England conquering Northumbria. But, when the Danes began going after Mercia and Wessex itself along with most of southern England, Alfred and his brother lead an expedition to resist the Danish incursions into Mercia.
The Danes refused to give battle and the Mercians paid the Danes to get rid of them. Then, the Danes moved to East Anglia invading and killing its king. By the end of 870 the Danes again came after Wessex in the south west of England.
The Battle of Reading was the first battle in which Alfred was a commander. The Danes had taken the town of Reading and now the Saxons fought to take it back. The Saxons charged the Viking fortifications, but the Vikings sent the attackers on retreat.
Four days later, Alfred and his Saxon warriors returned and Alfred had his victory at Ashdown, but there were further defeats for the Anglo-Saxons at Basing, Meretum and Wilton.
Alfred's brother died in battle in 871, and at twenty-one years of age, Alfred became King of Wessex. Because Alfred was an experience military leader, he became king over AEthelred's two sons as they were underage. Wessex needed a strong leader to fight the Danes and Alfred fit the bill.
After the Anglo-Saxon defeat at Wilton, Alfred pounded out a peace agreement with the Danes and for five years the Danes left Wessex and turned their attention to other parts of England.
But, the Danes returned in the late 870's and again in the 890's and launched invasions of Wessex and other areas of Alfred's kingdoms, coming through Kent in the southeast to the Welsh borders in the northwest, attacking by land and sea.
Alfred the Great is also known as the "Father of the English Navy," for the fleet of warships he had built to attack the Danish fleet.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes Alfred's warships as "almost twice as long as those of the Danes, with sixty or more oars."
Alfred and the Anglo-Saxons scored a naval victory over a Danish fleet in 896 AD.
As Alfred grew older he became wiser, and he devised different, more cautious tactics for dealing with the Danes. He would besiege their fortified positions and starve them out or shadow their armies with guerrilla forces, who took their food supplies and then attacked, preventing the Danes from living off the land.
He reorganized the militia in each shire dividing it into two groups working in shifts to continue cultivation of the land so it would not be entirely neglected while his men were at war. He strove for key positions to protect the general population and their goods saving them from Viking conquest and plunder.
As a result of these changes, Alfred was able to defeat the Danes at Cynwit and Ethandum in 878. Alfred then forced the Danish leader, Guthrum, to convert to Christianity and even became his godfather.
By the mid - 880's Alfred took London (886) and had further victories at Farnham, Benfleet and Buttington in 893. Alfred's diplomacy with the Welsh paid off for him as they sent troops to aid him in his fight against the Norsemen.
After the capture of London, all of England not under Danish rule submitted to Alfred. By 896, the Danish threat to Alfred had dwindled away.
Alfred was now the first King of England.
To consolidate his power as King of England, Alfred's vision and innovations in organizing his kingdom went a long way to improving the daily life for the Anglo-Saxons. First, he organized his landholdings and villages and towns into shires. Each shire then had a fyrd, or local militia and fortifications of key locations.
Strongholds known as burhs, origin of the English word borough, were positioned no more than twenty miles from one another. Some had street plans and Alfred intended them to be permanent market towns and commercial centers rather than just strongholds in time of war.
Alfred also made his own code of laws, incorporating statutes from both Mercia and Kent, presumably to encourage acceptance of his claim to rule over all of England. He reinforced his kingly authority by introducing a new law on treason and an oath of allegiance.
Because Alfred was such a devout Christian, his own law code linked his laws with the Ten Commandments, suggesting he wanted people to think of him as a lawgiver with the divine right to rule.
"The pursuit of wisdom was the surest path to power" ~ Alfred the Great.
- The Battle of Hastings (England,1066 AD) and how it changed the English language
The Norman invasion and the Battle of Hastings (1066) rocked the Anglo-Saxon world and changed the culture and English language forever
Alfred's English education program
From the time he was a child when he visited the court of Charles the Bald, grandson of Charlemagne, Alfred was impressed with the education and learning going on in Charles' court and the scholars and scientists Charles brought in to teach all in his royal court. All the lessons Alfred had learned from Charles' court and tucked away as a youth now came to the forefront.
Like Charles the Bald and Charlemagne, Alfred established a court school and imported scholars from Europe and Wales to teach all. One of Alfred's scholars, Bishop Asser, became his biographer and this is from whom we get the information we know today about Alfred. He commissioned Bishop Asser to write a biography of him at this time.
Because Alfred had commissioned him, Asser's biography emphasized Alfred's positive attributes and aspects and did not dwell on the ruthless aspects any 9th century king would have had. Geoffrey of Monmouth, medieval historian, also wrote of and reinforced Alfred's favorable image.
Alfred proclaimed throughout his realm, "all free born young men in England to set to learning." Alfred proposed that primary education be taught in English with those wishing to advance to hold religious orders to continue their studies in Latin.
But, Alfred insisted that all learning throughout his kingdom be in English, and even the monks at the monasteries were to learn English along with Latin. This was Alfred's greatest achievement. He made sure the English language survived by defeating the Danes, and by his insistence that all learning and writing to be in English. By doing this, he cemented English as the first language of England. The Anglo-Saxon Germanic English would survive on the island and there would be no major shifts or changes in the English language until the Norman invasion in 1066.
During the the 880's, Alfred and the Anglo-Saxons experienced a lull and quiet time in the fighting with the Danes, and so Alfred sought great men of learning and scholars from all over Europe and Wales to come to his court to teach as they had to Charles' court.
Long years of fighting the Danes had left a disastrous effect on learning in his kingdom. Even many of the English clergy were ignorant of Latin, the universal language of the church. His monasteries were bereft of learning, manuscripts and scribes.
When Alfred ascended to the throne of England, no one south of the Thames River could translate a letter from Latin to English.
Besides learning English and writing in English, Alfred also encouraged the study of art and architecture and he was responsible for building the monasteries at Athelney and Shaftesbury.
Few books of wisdom were written in English and so Alfred sought to remedy this. He maintained a court centered program of translating into English books he deemed necessary for all men to know. Alfred believed so much in this that he actually translated some books into English himself.
The earliest work to be translated into English was the Dialogues of (St.) Gregory the Great, a very popular book in the Middle Ages. Alfred added to this by translating from Latin to English four books himself:
- St. Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care
- Boethius', Consolation of Philosophy
- St. Augustine's Soliloquies
- The first fifty psalms of the Psalter
The Consolation of Philosophy became the most popular book of the Middle Ages in England. Alfred's translations and those he commissioned were viewed as untainted by the later Roman Catholic influences of the Normans.
Alfred restored religion and learning in Wessex and throughout his realm and he considered learning just as important to the defense of his kingdom as the building of burhs and warships.
Alfred wrote his religious beliefs down in a doctrine which stated that divine rewards and punishments were rooted in a vision of a Christian world order in which God is the Lord to whom kings owe obedience and through whom they derive their authority over their followers. This was intrinsic to Alfred's view of the world.
He strongly believed that God had entrusted him with the spiritual as well as physical welfare of his people. He believed if his kingdom was not educated he was answerable about this before God. Alfred's ultimate responsibility was the pastoral care of his people.
One of the greatest lasting legacies of Alfred was his patronage of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles which was begun during his reign and continued until 1155. It has provided one of the most important sources of history of England in the early Middle Ages.
Alfred the Great was one of the greatest warriors and forgers of peace in his kingdom, and his pursuit of English education and learning throughout his realm insured better lives for all Anglo-Saxons.
Alfred died in 899, and today historians don't know from what or exactly where Alfred is buried. His bones were moved several times after his death and it is believed by historians today that his ultimate interment is in Hyde Abbey along with his wife and children. It is presumed he is interred before the high altar there.
© 2014 Suzette Walker