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Facts About the Rice Plant - a Detailed Description

Updated on September 9, 2018
Vellur profile image

A graduate in Botany, Nithya Venkat enjoys writing about plants that help sustain life on planet Earth.

Rice Plant
Rice Plant | Source

Rice is a food crop that is included as an essential part of a meal across the world. Rice is used for making desserts, puddings or ground and used in the form of rice flour.

The rice plant is a member of the grass family called Poaceae. It is cultivated as an agricultural crop and has an annual yield of 535 million tons. In Asia alone, over 300 million acres of land is used for cultivation of rice.

History of Rice

The first evidence of rice being grown was traced back to China. From China, the cultivation of rice spread to South Asia during 2000 B.C. The knowledge of rice cultivation spread to Indonesia around 1,500 B.C and Japan in 1000 B.C. Rice was introduced to India in 2500 B.C and SriLanka in 1000 B.C.

The growing of rice spread to Europe, Africa, and America when the Moor’s invaded Spain in 700 A.D. In the United States rice was cultivated since the seventeenth century.

Latest archaeological evidence has revealed that an area along the Yangtze River in Central China was the region where rice was first domesticated.

Varieties of Rice

The rice plant is an annual grass that belongs to the genus Oryza. The genus Oryza has two cultivated varieties of rice and 22 wild species of rice. The rice plant belongs to the Gramineae family. The Gramineae family is also referred to as Poaceae.

The two varieties of rice that are widely cultivated for consumption are Oryza sativa (Asian rice) and the Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

What is a tiller?

The tiller is the rice seedling that arises from the seed after germination. The young seedling has three main parts - root, shoot and the leaf.

When the seedling has developed a stem and sprouted about five leaves, more shoots grow out from the main stem. This process is called tillering, and each new stem is called a tiller. At the top of each tiller, there are flat leaves.

At first, the tiller is attached to the main plant and after sometime the tiller separates from the main plant and develops roots of its own.

Description of the Rice Plant

Rice is a plant that has a short lifespan of 3 – 7 months. The height of the rice plant ranges from 0.4 meters to 5 meters. The wild varieties of rice are more than 7 meters tall.

Stem

Rice plants grow as a tuft of culms (stems) with long flat leaf blades. The stem of the rice plant has joints that are made up of nodes and internodes. The node is the part of the stem from which a leaf grows. The internode is part of the stem that lies between two nodes.

Roots

The root system of the rice plant is shallow, and more than 95% of the roots are found in top 8 inches of the soil.

The roots of the rice plant are fibrous and have many secondary and tertiary branches. The surface of the roots has thin root hairs. The root hairs absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil.

Leaves

The leaves are arranged in alternate order on the culm in opposite directions. The leaf of the rice plant is complex in structure.

  • Leaf sheath originates from the node of a culm (stem) and partially encloses the node.
  • Leaf blade also originates from the node and is joined with the sheath.
  • The uppermost part of the leaf is called the Flag Leaf and is just below the panicle.
  • There are small appendages at the base of the leaf blade called auricles.
  • A thin papery structure present above the auricle called the ligule.

Structure of the Flower of Rice Plant
Structure of the Flower of Rice Plant | Source

Structure of the Flower

The rice flowers are small and are arranged in a panicle-type of an inflorescence. A panicle inflorescence is borne on the uppermost internode of the culm. The spikelet is the floral part of the plant that has the reproductive organs.

The male part of the rice plant is the stamen. It is made up of two parts the anther and the filament. The filament is long, thin and supports the anther at the tip. Each anther has four elongated sacs that hold the pollen grains. The flower of the rice plant has six stamens.

The female part of the rice plant is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. The pollen grains land on the stigma and these are transported to the ovary where fertilization takes place. The ovary, stigma, and style together make up the carpel.

The lemma and palea are the structures that protect the floral organs. The pedicel is the small stalk that arises from the node and bears the spikelet.

The wind pollinates the flowers of the rice plant.

Structure of the Kernel

Each rice plant bears hundreds of kernels. A rice kernel measures 6-10 mm in length.

The rice kernel has four parts –

  • hull – the hard outermost covering
  • bran - layers that protect the inner parts of the kernel
  • endosperm - found beneath the bran layers
  • embryo - the innermost part from which a new rice plant grows

The bran layers are rich in protein, dietary fiber, Gamma Oryzanol and trace minerals, The endosperm (white rice) has protein, carbohydrate, and starch.

The embryo also known as the germ is rich in protein, antioxidants, minerals and phytonutrients.

Rice Grains
Rice Grains | Source

Harvesting Rice Grains

Rice grows well in heavy soils and is rich in water content. Farmers grow rice in paddies. Paddies are fields with dirt walls around them that help to keep the water inside.

The fields are flooded with water and the seeds, or small rice plants are planted in the soil.

Two or three weeks before the harvest all the water from the field is pumped out, and the rice plants are cut, and the kernels are separated from the rest of the plant. The wet kernels are dried out in the sun. After the harvest, rice is processed in the rice mills.

Why brown rice is more healthy than white rice?

Brown rice is more healthy than white rice because the milling process that produces the brown rice removes only the outermost layer (hull) of the rice grain and does not destroy the nutritious inner layers of the rice grain such as the bran, endosperm and the embryo.

The milling and polishing processes that produce white rice destroy the nutritional inner layers of the rice grain.

The milling and polishing process that produces white rice destroys the following -

  • 67 % of Vitamin B3
  • 80 % of Vitamin B1
  • 90 % of Vitamin B 6
  • 60 % of iron
  • Half the Manganese
  • Half the Phosphorus
  • All of the dietary fiber and fatty acids

Brown rice is a healthy choice that contributes to overall good health in the long run.

References

http://ricepedia.org/rice-as-a-plant/parts-of-the-rice-plant

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=128

http://www.madehow.com/Volume-5/Rice.html

http://archive.gramene.org/species/oryza/rice_illustrations.html#tiller

http://www.mwit.ac.th/~t2050108/files/Morphology%20of%20the%20rice%20plant.pdf

http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/ericeproduction/0.1._Morphology_of_the_rice_plant.htm

http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/content/panicle-and-spikelet-morphology-rice


© 2015 Nithya Venkat

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    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      13 months ago from Dubai

      Mary Norton, thank you for your visit. I too hope such heathy rice comes into the market. Rice is my favorite too.

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 

      13 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      I just saw an interview in Bloomberg or CNBC of a Japanese who has started milling rice without wasting those great nutrients in rice and he is selling it now in Japan. I hope this will reach our market, too. I love eating rice.

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      3 years ago from Dubai

      Thelma Albert rice tastes delicious and it must have been a great experience harvesting rice, thank you for stopping by.

    • Thelma Alberts profile image

      Thelma Alberts 

      3 years ago from Germany and Philippines

      Very informative hub. I love eating rice and when I was still a child, my mother and sisters helped harvesting rice in the fields while I helped them getting the hulls out of the rice by hitting the rice with a long wood. I forgot the name of it. A very hard work before we were able to eat rice. Thanks for reminding me those days.

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      3 years ago from Dubai

      RTalloni, thank you for stopping by and yes rice has it's own benefits if consumed in moderation.

    • RTalloni profile image

      RTalloni 

      3 years ago from the short journey

      Most of us take rice for granted but having more insight into this amazing little grain is interesting. Though it is a starch/carb, it is important to remember that rice has much nutritional value. Thanks for a neat read.

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      3 years ago from Dubai

      vocalcoach thank you and am glad you came to know more about rice through this hub. Thanks for the many votes and share.

    • vocalcoach profile image

      Audrey Hunt 

      3 years ago from Idyllwild Ca.

      You've provided so much interesting information about rice. Excellent hub! I've learned a lot. Voted up and across (not funny) and sharing.

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      3 years ago from Dubai

      AudreyHowitt, thank you!

    • AudreyHowitt profile image

      Audrey Howitt 

      3 years ago from California

      Fabulous write!!

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      ChitrangadaSharan thank you for your visit and vote up, much appreciated.

    • ChitrangadaSharan profile image

      Chitrangada Sharan 

      4 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Great informative hub!

      We consume Rice almost daily and I have also seen the Rice fields. But you have provided a through hub about Rice, much of which I didn't know.

      Thanks for sharing this very educative hub full of information about Rice. Voted up!

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      Peggy W thank you for your visit. Thanks too for the vote up, tweet and pin, much appreciated.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      4 years ago from Houston, Texas

      In the western areas of Houston there are still some rice fields and further into the city which is now filled with subdivisions and commercial businesses there are numerous rice mills still standing which are now often used for other purposes. Very interesting article! Reading this article definitely added to my knowledge. Up votes and sharing; also tweeted and pinned.

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      Nell Rose thank you for stopping by. Thanks for the vote and share too.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      4 years ago from England

      Hi, I knew about the paddy fields but not much else, I do remember seeing it on tv, how they had layers on the side of a mountain where each family took part in keeping them watered etc, fascinating hub, voted up and shared! nell

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      Ericdierker thank you and am glad you came to know more about rice.

    • Ericdierker profile image

      Eric Dierker 

      4 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.

      Excellent, I learned a great deal. There is always rice being prepared somehow in my home and it is good to learn more about it.

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      travmaj thank you for your visit.

      radhikasree thank you for reading and the many vote ups. Kerala is a beautiful place.

      Venkatacahri M thank you for your appreciation and vote up, much appreciated.

    • Venkatachari M profile image

      Venkatachari M 

      4 years ago from Hyderabad, India

      Great, informative hub. You have done it so detailed with good research and illustrative images.

      Voted up.

    • radhikasree profile image

      Radhika Sreekanth 

      4 years ago from Mumbai,India

      Your hub reminded me of the green paddy fields of Kerala. Rice, being our staple food, is an interesting topic to discuss with.

      Voted up, useful and interesting. Sharing too..

    • travmaj profile image

      travmaj 

      4 years ago from australia

      Fascinating hub, I've often seen rice paddies but hadn't thought about the whole procedure. Most informative and such detail. Thank you Vellur

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      always exploring thank you and yes brown rice is more healthy.

      Ruchira thank you, science can be interesting and sometimes mind boggling!

      Alicia C thank you for stopping by.

    • AliciaC profile image

      Linda Crampton 

      4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      This hub contains a lot of information! Thanks for sharing it, Vellur.

    • Ruchira profile image

      Ruchira 

      4 years ago from United States

      It was an interesting walk back to my class room when i learnt this years back, and honestly there were moments when i had to ponder over the procedure :)

      Well done, Nithya!

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Richert 

      4 years ago from Southern Illinois

      Your article is full of facts unknown to me. Sounds like we should be eating more brown rice.

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      pstraubie48 it must have been great walking through the rice fields! Thank you for the special angels.

      Jackie Lynnley thank you for your visit.

      Faith Reaper thank you for reading and for the many votes, tweet and pin. Much appreciated.

      Flourish Anyway thank you for stopping by and yes rice is the staple food for many people.

      moonlake thank you for your visit and the information. Thanks for the vote up too.

    • moonlake profile image

      moonlake 

      4 years ago from America

      Interesting hub, enjoyed reading your hub. Arkansas grows the most rice in the US. Wild rice is what people harvest in this area. Voted up.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 

      4 years ago from USA

      Voted up and more. All I knew about rice was it grew in paddies and certain cultures eat a whole lot of it. Good hub!

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 

      4 years ago from southern USA

      You have provided a lot of great information I did not know about rice.

      Excellent hub full of insight and useful.

      Up ++ tweeting and pinning

    • Jackie Lynnley profile image

      Jackie Lynnley 

      4 years ago from The Beautiful South

      Very interesting info on a grain I really love! ^+

    • pstraubie48 profile image

      Patricia Scott 

      4 years ago from sunny Florida

      When I lived in Japan, there were tiny one way roads that ran through some of the rice paddies. Some days when we were behind schedule in getting to work, we would cut through there ...and often workers were there tending to the plants.

      You filled in lots I did not know. thanks for sharing.

      Angels are on the way to you this evening ps

    • Vellur profile imageAUTHOR

      Nithya Venkat 

      4 years ago from Dubai

      billybuc thank you for reading and leaving a comment, much appreciated.

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 

      4 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Oddly I didn't know any of this. I knew rice was grown in paddies, but I didn't know the purpose of them or how it was harvested. Great information here.

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