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American Civil War Life: Union Infantryman – Drills III: Positions To Fire

Updated on July 14, 2014
Living History Unit in various stages of the Firing Procedure
Living History Unit in various stages of the Firing Procedure

Introduction

Once in the immediate vicinity of the battlefield, maneuvers brought the unit to its position to meet the enemy. Now, the unit must fight, and musketry was the major way to do so.

In the linear formations of the day, it was very necessary for each man to correctly load and fire his weapon without harm or interference to his comrades about him in the line of battle. Therefore, the positions of his feet, the motions of his arms, and the movements of the weapon needed to be as choreographed and efficient as possible.

It should be mentioned that all infantrymen were required to shoot right-handed in order to obey the instructions to properly fire in the line of battle.

A Living History Unit at Shoulder Arms
A Living History Unit at Shoulder Arms

Preliminaries

Immediately before the unit is commanded to fire, the unit must, first and foremost, be in line of battle, and it must also be stationary. Accurate fire while in motion was unknown at that time.

Unless the unit was commanded to kneel or to lie down sometime beforehand, everyone will be upright and in the position of Shoulder Arms. This was the standard firearm carry position for units when upright and stationary.

We will assume that each man's firearm is loaded, primed and half-cocked, and is, thus, ready to fire.

Firing Procedure - Hierarchy of Commands

When the commands are issued for the unit's first firing procedure, they will follow this hiearchy:

  1. Volume of Fire Command
  2. Unit Identification Preparatory Command
  3. "Ready."
  4. Stance Command (if necessary)
  5. Direction of Oblique Preparatory Command (if necessary)
  6. "Aim." OR,
  7. In case of Fire By Rank (to be explained later), the command is "(Front or Rear) Rank, Aim." OR
  8. In case of Fire By File (to be explained later), the command is "Commence Firing" instead of "Aim"
  9. "Fire." OR,
  10. in case the officer decides against the need to fire, he will command "Recover."
  11. "Load." OR,
  12. If the commanding officer wishes the delivery of fire to cease, he will command "Cease Firing".

A Living History Unit Fires By Company
A Living History Unit Fires By Company
A Living History Unit prepares to Fire By Rank:  the Front Rank Aims while the Rear Rank Loads (it already fired its volley)
A Living History Unit prepares to Fire By Rank: the Front Rank Aims while the Rear Rank Loads (it already fired its volley)
A Living History begins to Fire By File - you can see the musket discharge from the far right File of the Company that is closest to the camera
A Living History begins to Fire By File - you can see the musket discharge from the far right File of the Company that is closest to the camera

Volume of Fire Command

The Volume Of Fire command determined the size of the unit or sub-unit to fire simultaneously (known as a "volley").

There were three different volumes of fire to be delivered:

Fire By (Unit) - the entire Unit is to fire a volley. The Unit is usually a Company (Fire By Company), but could also be the larger Battalion unit (Fire By Battalion), or even the smaller Platoon (Fire By Platoon) or Section (Fire By Section) units.

Fire By Rank - only one Rank of the Company, at a time, is to fire a volley. By the Manuals, the Rear Rank is commanded to fire first then, as it loads, the Front Rank is commanded to fire. Dependent on how long the commanding officers wish to continue this process, the Rear Rank can then be commanded to fire as the Front Rank loads, and so on.

Fire By File - only one File of the Company, at a time, is to fire a volley, and this continues sequentially from the right of the line to the left. Then each man loads, aims, and fires independently of all others after his File fired its volley.

Unit Identification Preparatory Command

This command alerts the Unit to give its attention to the next command and to prepare to obey it.

Members of the 8th Ohio Volunteers Living History Association Prime their muskets and come to the Ready position
Members of the 8th Ohio Volunteers Living History Association Prime their muskets and come to the Ready position
Feet positions at the Ready command
Feet positions at the Ready command

"Ready" Command

This command signals the beginning of the firing procedure.

At the "Ready" command, each man will "T" the feet (the right foot is brought back so that its heel touches the left heel at about 45 degrees) and will full-cock the hammer. The musket should be leveled above the Cap Pouch, with the left hand at about the second musket band and the right hand at the small of the stock.

Rear Rank men will often level their muskets slightly higher so as not to interfere with the Ready positions of the Front Rank men.




Stance Command

This command tells the Unit or sub-Unit what stance (other than Upright) it must adopt prior to the delivery of fire.

Each infantryman was taught three different firing stances: Upright, Kneeling, and Prone.

Upright Stance: the infantryman stands erect on both feet.

There is no command necessary to specify the Upright stance as long as the troops are already on their feet. If, however, any troops are in a kneeling or prone stance, and the commanding officer wants them to fire from an Upright stance, the command "Rise Up" is given. The troops would then rise to their feet and come to the Ready position as already described.

Kneeling Stance: the infantryman kneels upon his right knee.

I will make an assumption here that safe delivery of fire cannot occur if both Ranks kneel at the same time. With this in mind, the Stance Command would be "Front Rank, Kneel." Each Front Rank man will keep the left foot planted in place. He will then bring the right leg back and lower the right knee to the ground (aligned with the left heel). The lower right leg is moved to an angle of about 45 degrees (or nearly perpendicular) to the left leg, and each man leans back onto the right heel. Meanwhile, the Rear Rank will remain Upright and will not move as the Front Rank kneels.

Prone Stance: the infantryman lies down upon his chest and abdomen.

I will make another assumption here that safe delivery of fire cannot occur if both Ranks lie down at the same time. With this in mind, the Stance Command would be "Front Rank, Lie Down." If Upright, each Front Rank man would lower forward onto his knees. He would then flatten out, forward, onto his elbows. If he was already in a Kneeling position, the Front rank man would lean forward to lower the left knee to the ground and bring the right knee forward to align with the left knee. Then he would flatten out, forward, onto the elbows.

Under another assumption, that each rank is on the same level piece of ground, there ought to be no reason for the Rear Rank men to remain in the Upright stance while the Front Rank lies down. The logical assumption is that the Rear Rank was ordered to kneel (as described in the Kneeling stance above) or, perhaps, to lie down as well. However, in order to safely fire while in the two-rank line of battle, the Rear Rank needed to rise to the Kneeling stance.

Direction of Oblique Preparatory Command

This command notifies the unit, if necessary, that it will need to deliver its fire at an angle.

There were three types of fire to be delivered: Direct, Left-Oblique, and Right-Oblique.

Direct Fire: fire that is delivered straight ahead. There is no preparatory command for that.

Oblique Fire: fire that is delivered at an angle to the line of battle, and it can be delivered to the right or to the left. As a result, the preparatory command, "Right-Oblique" or "Left-Oblique", is needed to specify this type of fire, and the direction it must go.

For Right-Oblique Fire, at the "Right-Oblique" preparatory command, each man should look about 45 degrees to the right to focus on the target

For Left-Oblique Fire, at the "Left-Oblique" preparatory command, each man should look about 45 degrees to the left to focus on the target.

It is important to remember that the angle of fire should never be more than 45 degrees perpendicular to the line of battle, else unit members could be endangered by the fire from their own comrades.

"Aim" Command

This command tells the troops to bring the musket stocks to their shoulders and set their sights upon the target.

Until now, most commands could be obeyed in the same way by everyone in the Unit, regardless of the Rank to which he was assigned. However, if the unit is in the Upright stance, then the "Aim" command prompts different responses for the men in the Rear Rank than for the men in the Front Rank, which will now be described in the sections below..

Hardee's Manual illustration: Front Rank Upright Direct Aim/Fire stance
Hardee's Manual illustration: Front Rank Upright Direct Aim/Fire stance
Casey's Manual illustration: Rear Rank Upright Direct Aim/Fire stance
Casey's Manual illustration: Rear Rank Upright Direct Aim/Fire stance
Gilham's Manual illustration: a File in the Upright Direct Aim/Fire stance
Gilham's Manual illustration: a File in the Upright Direct Aim/Fire stance
Foot and Firearm positions for Upright Direct Fire at the Aim command
Foot and Firearm positions for Upright Direct Fire at the Aim command

"Aim" Command - Upright Stance, Direct Fire

At the "Aim" command, the Front Rank man's feet remain in the "T" position. He braces the butt of the musket against his right shoulder and focuses upon the target.

Meanwhile, the Rear Rank man will also bring the musket butt to his right shoulder. However, he must bring his right foot about 10 in. / 25.4 cm to his right. This will enable him to level and aim the musket to the right of his Front Rank filemate (between him and the file to the right). The filemate's head should be aligned between the first and second musket bands.

Casey's Manual illustration: Kneeling Direct Fire
Casey's Manual illustration: Kneeling Direct Fire

"Aim" Command - Kneeling Stance, Direct Fire

At the "Aim" command, the Front Rank man will bring the musket butt to his right shoulder and brace his left elbow on his left knee to steady his aim.

Meanwhile the Rear Rank man, under the assumption that he remains in the Upright Stance, will also bring the musket butt to his right shoulder, but he will not move his feet or his stance. There is no need to do so since each Front Rank filemate, as he kneels, is no longer in the line of his fire.

Sketch of infantrymen in the Prone Direct Firing position.
Sketch of infantrymen in the Prone Direct Firing position.

"Aim" Command - Prone Stance, Direct Fire

At the "Aim" command, the Front Rank man will bring the musket butt to his right shoulder and brace his right elbow on the ground while his left hand should be at the first musket band and his left elbow also on the ground.

Meanwhile, under the assumption that the Rear Rank kneels while the Front Rank lies down, the Rear Rank man will aim as was described in the "Aim" Command - Kneeling Stance, Direct Fire section above.

Foot and Firearm positions for Upright Right-Oblique Fire at the Aim command
Foot and Firearm positions for Upright Right-Oblique Fire at the Aim command
Foot and Firearm positions for Upright Left-Oblique Fire at the Aim command***
Foot and Firearm positions for Upright Left-Oblique Fire at the Aim command***

"Aim" Command - Upright Stance, Oblique Fire

Right-Oblique Fire:

Each Front Rank man, at the "Aim" command, will pull back his right shoulder and bring the musket butt to the same shoulder. As was already mentioned. the musket should be aimed no more than 45 degrees to the right.

Each Rear Rank man, at the "Aim" command, will pull back his right shoulder and bring the musket butt to the same shoulder. At the same time, he will bring the left foot slightly up and to the right, about 8 in. / 20.32 cm. toward the right heel of the man on the right of his Front Rank filemate. The musket should be aimed to the right of his filemate, and no more than 45 degrees to the right, between the front files. The filemate's head should be aligned between the first and second musket bands.

Left-Oblique Fire:

Each Front Rank man, at the "Aim" command, will pull back his left shoulder and bring the musket butt to the right shoulder. As was already mentioned. the musket should be aimed no more than 45 degrees to the left.

For Left-Oblique Fire, each Rear Rank man, at the "Aim" command, will pull back his left shoulder and bring the musket butt to the right shoulder. At the same time, he will bring the right foot slightly up and to the right, about 8 in. / 20.32 cm. toward the right heel of the man on the right of his Front Rank filemate. The musket should be aimed to the left of his filemate, and no more than 45 degrees to the left, between the front files***. The filemate's head should be aligned between the first and second musket bands.


*** - this section, where Left-Oblique fire for the Rear Rank men is described to be performed to the left of their filemates, is a somewhat recent and compelling argument. For many historians and Living History organizations, it was assumed that this procedure was performed to the right of the Front Rank filemates. However, a Living Historian named Mark Silas Tackitt researched this procedure through manuals published before, during, and after the War. He discovered that most manuals published before and after the War specified that Left-Oblique fire for Rear Rank men should be performed to the left of their filemates. The other manuals did not specify which side, but as they did not specify to the right of the Front Rank filemates, it can be supposed that the left side was considered to be the "default" side, whether specified or not, for Rear Rank Left-Oblique Fire. I decided that, for this article, Mr. Tackitt's argument was compelling and logical, so I incorporated his argument for my description of Rear Rank Left-Oblique Fire.

"Aim" Command - Kneeling or Prone Stance, Oblique Fire

There are no changes in foot positions, in Oblique fire, for troops in the Kneeling or Prone stances (primarily because they are not really ON their feet in those stances). Therefore, the only movements are in the upper torsos.

Right-Oblique Fire:

Each man, at the "Aim" command, will pull back his right shoulder and bring the musket butt to the same shoulder. As was already mentioned. the musket should be aimed no more than 45 degrees to the right.

Left-Oblique Fire:

Each man, at the "Aim" command, will pull back his left shoulder and bring the musket butt to the right shoulder. As was already mentioned. the musket should be aimed no more than 45 degrees to the left.

"Commence Firing" Command

If the Volume of Fire command was "Fire By File", then the next command was "Commence Firing". Each File, from the right of the line to the left, then fired its volley sequentially.

As it becomes each File's turn to fire, the Rear Rank man may command both his filemate and himself to "Aim" and "Fire" to ensure greater cohesion in the delivery of fire.

As mentioned in the Volume of Fire section, each man will load and fire independently after his File fired its volley. Also, the Front Rank and Rear Rank men will make the appropriate torso movements and foot and firearm placements when it aims, as is already mentioned in the "Aim" Command sections.

Fire Command OR Recover Command

At the Fire command, each man will squeeze the trigger on the firearm to fire the weapon. He will then remain in this position until he is given the next command.

If the commanding officer decided not to command the unit to fire, her will give the command "Recover". At this command, the troops will return to their previous Ready positions.

"Load" Command

When the commanding officer wishes his unit to prepare to fire again, either immediately or in the future, he will command "Load".

The motions and firearm placements, in order to properly load, are different according to each man's stance.

Casey's Manual illustration: the Load position - Take Cartridge
Casey's Manual illustration: the Load position - Take Cartridge
Members of the 8th Ohio Volunteers Living History Association tear cartridges (bite-off the tapered bottoms) with their front teeth
Members of the 8th Ohio Volunteers Living History Association tear cartridges (bite-off the tapered bottoms) with their front teeth
Members of the 20th Maine Volunteers Living History Association "Charge Cartridges" (place the cartridges, powder-side down, into the muzzles of the muskets)
Members of the 20th Maine Volunteers Living History Association "Charge Cartridges" (place the cartridges, powder-side down, into the muzzles of the muskets)
Members of the 8th Ohio Volunteers Living History Association draw their rammers in order to ram the cartridges down to the bottoms of the barrels
Members of the 8th Ohio Volunteers Living History Association draw their rammers in order to ram the cartridges down to the bottoms of the barrels
Casey's Manual illustration: the Prime position - a percussion cap is placed on the musket's cone. This position is very similar to the Ready position
Casey's Manual illustration: the Prime position - a percussion cap is placed on the musket's cone. This position is very similar to the Ready position

"Load" Command - Upright Stance

At the "Load" command, each man will align his feet as they were prior to the firing commands. He will bring the musket butt down between his feet, the rammer to the inside.

To load the musket:

Each man must take a cartridge from his Cartridge Box. He must then take, in his teeth, the paper end of the cartridge and bite it off. The next step is to place the cartridge into the muzzle of the firearm so the powder at the bottom of the projectile pours freely down the inside of the musket barrel. Each man will then draw the rammer from the stock of the firearm and use it to push the projectile all the way to the bottom of the barrel, where it will sit upon the powder. When the projectile is seated, each man must withdraw the rammer and place it back into the stock.

After the rammer is removed, each man will level the weapon just above his Cap Pouch where he will half-cock the hammer. He will them remove a percussion cap from his Cap Pouch and seat it upon the cone. The musket is now primed.

Normally, the hammer will stay at the half-cock until the Ready command. However, since the weapon was fired just prior, the soldier will now full-cock the hammer and bring the musket to Ready arms, all without the need for the command.

Living Historians Load and Fire during a reenactment. The soldier, second from left, is about to load his musket from the Kneeling Stance. His musket was brought back on his right side, rammer-side up, and in this position he will load the firearm
Living Historians Load and Fire during a reenactment. The soldier, second from left, is about to load his musket from the Kneeling Stance. His musket was brought back on his right side, rammer-side up, and in this position he will load the firearm

"Load" Command - Kneeling Stance

At the "Load" command, each Front Rank man will bring the musket back onto his right-hand side until the muzzle is between the hip and the left knee. The musket needed to be rammer-side up. In this position, each man will then load the musket. At no time in this loading procedure is the musket to be lifted into a vertical position or is the soldier to stand. Even to ram the cartridge down the barrel, the firearm was to remain in the reclined position, and the soldier to remain in the Kneeling stance, while the rammer was inserted into the barrel in a sideways manner.

After the rammer was withdrawn, the musket was brought up and leveled above the Cap Pouch. The soldier then half-cocked the hammer, took a percussion cap from the Cap Pouch, and seated it on the cone. The musket is now primed. He then full-cocked the hammer and came to the Ready position.

A Living Historian loads his musket from the Prone Stance. He is on his back, balances the firearm between his feet, and is about to ram the cartridge down the barrel
A Living Historian loads his musket from the Prone Stance. He is on his back, balances the firearm between his feet, and is about to ram the cartridge down the barrel

"Load" Command - Prone Stance

At the "Load" command, each Front Rank man will roll to his left, onto his back, balance the musket butt (rammer-side toward the soldier) between his feet, and load the musket. Interestingly enough, this very closely mimics the Load Position - Upright Stance. The only difference is that, while Prone, it is now angled 90 degrees from the Upright stance!

After the rammer was withdrawn, the musket was brought forward and the soldier returned onto his chest and abdomen. The soldier then half-cocked the hammer, took a percussion cap from the Cap Pouch, and seated it on the cone. The musket is now primed. He then full-cocked the hammer and came to the Ready position.

"Cease Firing" Command

If the commanding officer wanted to end the delivery of fire, he commanded "Cease Firing". Any man with an unloaded musket needed to load it and, if Upright, the unit must come to the position of Shoulder Arms (the position in which it began the firing procedure). For the other stances, the Unit should come to the Ready position. The entire unit will, thus, be ready for the next firing procedure, whenever it is necessary.

Afterword

This article, yet again, demonstrates that there was very little that was simple for the lads in the ranks of the American Civil War armies. Stances, foot placements, firearm movements, etc were all somewhat complex and very easy to forget on the actual battlefield "when the lead flies". It is another example of why so many drill sessions were needed to make effective soldiers of those who volunteered for duty.

The following tables, categorized by Volume of Fire, show the verbal commands of the Unit’s commanding officer by the Stances - Upright, Kneeling, and Prone - for easy reference.

Verbal Commands and Firing Stances - Fire By (Unit)

"Shoulder Arms."

"Fire By (Unit)."

"(Unit), Ready."

Upright Stance
Kneeling Stance
Prone Stance
_____
"Front Rank, Kneel"
"Front Rank, Lie Down"
_____
_____
"Rear Rank, Kneel" (unless not necessary)
“Aim”
“Aim”
“Aim”
“Recover” (Troops return to the Ready position)
“Recover” (Troops return to the Ready position)
“Recover” (Troops return to the Ready position)
“Aim”
“Aim”
“Aim”
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Left-Oblique, Aim"
"Left-Oblique, Aim"
"Left-Oblique, Aim"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Right-Oblique, Aim"
"Right-Oblique, Aim"
"Right-Oblique, Aim"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, troops return to the Ready position)
etc.
etc.
etc.
"Cease Firing."
"Cease Firing."
"Cease Firing."

Verbal Commands and Firing Stances - Fire By Rank

"Shoulder Arms."

"Fire By Rank."

"Company, Ready."

Upright Stance
Kneeling Stance
Prone Stance
_____
"Front Rank, Kneel"
"Front Rank, Lie Down"
_____
_____
"Rear Rank, Kneel" (unless not necessary)
“Rear Rank, Aim”
“Rear Rank, Aim”
“Rear Rank, Aim”
“Recover” (Rear Rank returns to the Ready position)
“Recover” (Rear Rank returns to the Ready position)
“Recover” (Rear Rank returns to the Ready position)
“Rear Rank, Aim”
“Rear Rank, Aim”
“Rear Rank, Aim”
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
“Recover” (Front Rank returns to the Ready position)
“Recover” (Front Rank returns to the Ready position)
“Recover” (Front Rank returns to the Ready position)
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Left-Oblique"
"Left-Oblique"
"Left-Oblique"
"Rear Rank, Aim"
"Rear Rank, Aim"
"Rear Rank, Aim"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Left-Oblique"
"Left-Oblique"
"Left-Oblique"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Right-Oblique"
"Right-Oblique"
"Right-Oblique"
"Rear Rank, Aim"
"Rear Rank, Aim"
"Rear Rank, Aim"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Rear Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Right-Oblique"
"Right-Oblique"
"Right-Oblique"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Front Rank, Aim"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Fire"
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
"Load" (When loaded, the Front Rank comes to the Ready position)
etc.
etc.
etc.
"Cease Firing."
"Cease Firing."
"Cease Firing."

Verbal Commands and Firing Stances - Fire By File

"Shoulder Arms."

"Fire By File."

"Company, Ready."

Upright Stance
Kneeling Stance
Prone Stance
_____
"Front Rank, Kneel"
"Front Rank, Lie Down"
_____
_____
"Rear Rank, Kneel"
"Commence Firing"
"Commence Firing"
"Commence Firing"
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads independently)
"Cease Firing"
"Cease Firing"
"Cease Firing"
"Fire By File"
"Fire By File"
"Fire By File"
“Company, Ready"
“Company, Ready"
“Company, Ready"
"Left-Oblique, Commence Firing"
"Left-Oblique, Commence Firing"
"Left-Oblique, Commence Firing"
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Left-Oblique Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Left-Oblique Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Left-Oblique Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
"Cease Firing"
"Cease Firing"
"Cease Firing"
“Fire By File"
“Fire By File"
“Fire By File"
“Company, Ready"
“Company, Ready"
“Company, Ready"
"Right-Oblique, Commence Firing"
"Right-Oblique, Commence Firing"
"Right-Oblique, Commence Firing"
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Right-Oblique Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Right-Oblique Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
(From the Right to the Left of the line: Each File Right-Oblique Aims, Fires, Loads; then each man independently fires and loads)
"Cease Firing"
"Cease Firing"
"Cease Firing"

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