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An Introduction to our World
The countries you know about them as: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, and Malaysia, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Albania, Bosnia, and Herzegovina, Egypt, and Sudan. You will learn more about some more countries of the world.
United States of America (U.S.A)
The United States of America covers a large part of the North America continent. The red Indians are other native inhabitants it before Christopher Columbus discovered it for the West in 1492 AD. The thirteen states of America declared their independence on 4 July 1776, and won their freedom after a war of independence against the British. These states joined in order to form “the United States of America” (other states joined later, so that the US today comprises of 50 states. George Washington became the first president of the United States. It was the first country in the modern world that had a president instead of a king and had a democratic government.
The US emerged as a “Super power” after the Second World War (which lasted from 1939 AD). It supported the principles of free economy, or capitalism, which was opposed to socialism or communism favored by Russia, the other super power of those days. For this reason, the two super powers were opposed to each other although they did not fight any wars. This was called the Cold War. The capital of the US is Washington D.C, and the population is around 312 million.
Russia is the world’s largest country by area. In the old days the kings and queens, ruled Russia. The last king was overthrown by Lenin, the leader of the communists in 1917 AD. The communists believed that all people should collectively own the means of productions, such as industry. They did not believe in the right of individuals to own the means of production.
This system of economy was called communism or socialism.
The capital of Russia is Moscow and population is around 146 million. The official language is Russian, although more than a 100 language are spoken in the country.
One of the oldest civilizations in the world started in China around 3500 BC the same time as the other River Valley Civilizations. China became a communist country in 1949 AD, under the leadership of Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976), but developed major differences with the USSR. It also developed boundary conflicts with India, which later developed into a war. For this reason, China has remained a very good friend of Pakistan since the 1950s.
The Great Wall of China is one of the most interesting structures built by man. However it is said that hundreds of thousands of people were forced to work on it against their will many thousands even died in the making of this wall.
The capital of China is Beijing (also called Peking), and its population is around 1330 million the largest in the world. The official language is Chinese, but many other languages are also spoken in the country.
It has a long history of civilization, beginning around the 9th century BC.
Emperor and empress ruled Japan, but the country developed a parliament by 1881 AD, it attacked Pearl Harbour, an American port, without warning and killed around 7000 people. The US, which had remained away from the Second World War up till then, was forced to participate by this move and eventually Japan accepted peace after the US dropped the atomic bomb on two of its important cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 AD.
Japan made a remarkable progress after the Second World War. In the beginning, the country had to depend upon aid from foreign countries, especially the US. At one time, the American government was contributing more than $1 million a day! However, the people of Japan accepted the change and focused al their attention on industrial growth. Soon, their country becomes one of the greatest industrial nations in the world. Today it is a leader in world trade.
A view of Atomic Bomb attack by USA
Australia developed into a colony of Europeans; almost all of them were British. However, many local people also lived there.
Great Britain gave independence to Australia on 1 January 1901; Sydney is the largest city in Australia. The capital of Australia is Canberra, and its population is around 22 million. The official language is English (although Australian English is seen as slightly different in some respects from British English).