An Outline of a Speech
An outline of a speech has benefits include:
Generally, everyone can talk, but not everyone can speak, since speaking itself needs preparation through learning and practicing, therefore, to speak well does not need any talent, but practice.
This writing discusses about how to make a speech- To practice how to speak, how to deliver a speech on well, of course, we need an outline.
An outline of a speech has functions as follows: 1. To guide a subject toward that the speech should have been conveyed. 2. To know what and how broad the speech should be delivered. 3. To put visuals how speech to be told and organized. 4. To guide in the part where an explanation should be highlighted. 5. To avoid a vicious circle (not developed) to the utterance. 6. To maintain consistency and coherence the speech.
The difference between an outline pattern and the other pattern determined by the function of the speech. By function of that, there are some patterns of speech as follows:
1. Sequential Pattern
This pattern usually used when a speech has a function to inform. The provided information related to the sequence of event or procedure. The titles speech designed with this pattern usually sound like: How to...
Speech Title : How to re-build Aceh.
Immediate Purpose : To inform attendants about restoring or rehabilitating the infrastructure and buildings so that they can deal with the process without difficulty.
Introduction : I. The planning and building for attendants are the first critical phases that can be carried out without difficulty by following certain steps.
Body/ Discussion : II. The steps for carrying out the planning and building including re-building the infrastructure, housing, towns, and villages.
A. Proceed to restore and rehabilitate the infrastructure and building on the urban sites.
B. House the first settlers within 12 months.
C. Adopt the simple 20 feet containers for everything from very simple abodes to sophisticated power plants and hospitals.
D. Locate the new town or village without removing from the old.
E. Design the original town sites as national memorial parks.
F. Re-plant the mangroves; indigenous trees.
G. Set up a body that would prepare the individual lots for handing over the survivors and for sale to new settlers or for auction.
H. recruit both the Indonesian private section professionals and overseas professionals in urban planning, infrastructure and architectural design, site evaluation and social-logical structure.
Closing : By considering those steps cited above, you need to follow step to step.
2. Problem- Solution Pattern
This pattern often used in a speech serves to encourage , convincing , or ask for viewers do something . The speech like this has titles as: The Problem of..., The need to..., etc.
An example of the outline problem solution pattern given below:
Speech Title: The need to put off the policy of raising fuel prices.
Immediate Purpose: To convince audience that we should think of postponing the policy of raising fuel prices or revise the policy.
Introduction: I. I am speaking on this because I am a citizen of this country and am concerned about this.
II. There are two considerations:
A. The current policy is not suited or appropriate to the situation view- point.
B. Owing to instability economic condition.
Body/ Discussion: III. The current policy is not suited or appropriate for:
A. It is an unwise decision for:
1. Income people is still low.
2. The grass roots' buying power is still low.
IV. The current policy is not suited or appropriate for:
A. The economy is not showing signs of recovery.
B. The unemployed level is high.
Conclusion: V. We must either postpone the policy of raising fuel prices or revise the policy.
VI. We must explore the possibility of th review of the policy.
3. Cause- Effect Pattern
Cause-Effect Pattern used to draw up a speech that describes or explains a problem for as a result. Although it is persuasive, it emphasizes to the out of the problem is not to encourage as in a speech with Problem- Solution Pattern.
Here is an example of a speech outline that uses the Cause- Effect Pattern:
Speech Title: A Study of the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and using of coal, oil and natural gas.
Immediate Purpose: To describe or explain audience about the emergence of Global Warming as effects of greenhouse gas emissions and using of coal, oil and natural gas.
I. Large rapidly industrializing countries such as China and India, including US are the world's biggest coal, oil and natural gas consumers and greenhouse gas emission producers.
II. The emissions of carbon dioxide (co2) produced in huge amounts when fossil fuels are burned. bring about Global Warming.
A. The increase of particular gases, especially co2 traps energy from the sun so it can be sent out of the atmosphere that causes the increase in temperature of the earth's atmosphere.
B. The rise in temperature of the earth's atmosphere makes icebergs both in the northern and southern seas melting and the surface of the water is up.
C. The rise in temperature of the earth's atmosphere also makes typhoons increasing in a number and the rain falls inconsistently.
III. We have already known what greenhouse gas emission and using of coal, oil and natural gas in huge amounts mean to us.
To cut overall emissions of heat- trapping co2 and curb use of coals oil and natural gas are the best choice.
4. Topical- Sequence Pattern
This pattern for a speech is persuasive and informative. It used when conversation with a speech that divided into some part with discussion comparison between advantages and disadvantages.
The speech of the pattern outline is called as:
Speech Title: The advantages and disadvantages of hotel room journalism in conflict areas.
Immediate Purpose: To invite audience to measure fairly the dualistic aspects of hotel room journalism in conflict area.
I. There is no big story worth to die for.
II. The great story that becomes the focus of attention of the world for superiority and rivalry for exclusive coverage is not to be a must.
A. Hotel room journalism takes no risks.
B. Safer: you feel safer than cover the story in the field.
C. More careful: in the hotel room, you will be more careful.
A. Inaccurate: you cannot look into the truth.
B. Non-exclusive: you cannot broadcast exclusively.
C. You cannot get the story happens live.
V. For it is so danger that a lot of journalists in conflict areas decide not to broadcast live.
5. Chronological Pattern
The speech theme of the acts of life for the person or the history of an event that has a chronological outline, as:
Speech Title: The life and the work of Adolf Hitler.
Immediate Purpose: To inform audience that Adolf Hitler was and what he had done for his country.
I. Adolf Hitler was the fuhrer (leader) of Germany.
II. Youth and education.
A. He lived in his youth in Vienna, Austrian-born.
B. He was very poor in his studies and barely managed to get through high school.
III. Political Life,
A. In world war I, he joined the German army.
B. After the war, he went into politics.
C. In 1924-1925, he was imprisoned for taking out a mass demonstration in favour of national unity and formation of socialist German state.
D. In 1933, he gained from President Hindenburg the appointment as a Chancellor.
E. After the death of Hindenburg, he made himself the fuhrer of Germany.
F. The last days of the battle of Berlin.
Conclusion: Adolf Hitler was a German Dictator and was a brave and confident ruler.
Note: These Patterns I composed in 2004. All the data in use based on the year.