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Ancient Civilizations: Egypt

Updated on September 22, 2012

One of the most studied and well known civilizations of the ancient world is Egypt. It has influence on past and modern cultures throughout the world. Egypt was first settled in Northern Africa along the banks of the Nile River. The Nile River is the longest river in the world running north from Central Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile River floods the valley plains and recedes once a year making some of the most fertile land in the world. The Egyptians started to farm and irrigate this land and take advantage of the flowing rivers ups and downs. More than 90 percent of Egyptians, still live along the Nile River.

The Country of Egypt outside of the Nile River is made of hot desert. It receives very little rain fall and is on the cusp of the world’s largest desert, the sierra. With this great river flowing through the country, many Egyptians thought it was a gift from god. In The beginning of Egyptian civilization, there were two kingdoms in Egypt the Northern and Southern kingdoms. They became one kingdom around 3200 B.C after a bitter political battle. The elected a single king to rule under the Egyptian dynasty. The king they elected was King Menes. He designed and built a new capital for the united Egypt as a gift to the united factions in Memphis.

One of the most studied and noted archeology finds in Egypt is the great pyramids. Still today there is much controversy over the building over the pyramids. Some claim that the Egyptian kings built these elaborate tombs as gateways to the afterlife. Some claim they are too large and impossible for a man to do it so they needed help from the star gods. However, their place in history has been solidified as one of the world’s modern ancient wonders.

The Egyptians were one of the most advanced cultures to date. They had the ability and know how to map celestial events with sophisticated astronomy. They were able to map the seasons and predict the rise and fall of the Nile for planting season with great accuracy. They were also very knowledgeable about embalming and preservation of bodies. Many mummies have been found around the lands of Egypt that date back thousands of years and still in perfect condition.

They borrowed a lot of the techniques used in Sumerian and Mesopotamian civilizations, to continue their writing. They improved the technology of engineering and built megaliths of all sorts. Most of these pillars and large stone structures could not even be duplicated today with the precision they have. For example, recently there were hieroglyphs found explaining how to solidify concrete. It was duplicated, and found to be much stronger than what we use today. Some companies have started to use this new concrete receipt, and it is the same as they were using 4000 years ago.

Their stories will stand the test of time long after we are gone. Their culture and traditions continue to the modern day being celebrated throughout the world. So, as one of the corner stone of ancient civilizations Egypt is definitely in the top ten.


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  • SidKemp profile image

    Sid Kemp 5 years ago from Boca Raton, Florida (near Miami and Palm Beach)

    Thanks - a very interesting overview. I hadn't known about Memphis, Egypt. I think, though, that the dessert is the Sahara, not the Sierra.