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Anglo Mysore Wars
The conflict between the English and the Mysore was stated in 1766 and was continued for 30 years. Four major battles were fought, treaties were concluded subsequently after each war and ultimately the English was victorious.
Mysore was an integral part of the Vijayanagara Empire. After the disintegration of Vijayanagara Empire, the sub-ordinate rulers declared independence on their own. Wadayars were one of those sub-ordinate rulers declared independence for their state of Mysore.
In 17th and 18th Centuries the Mysore started expanding under Wadayars. In 1730, Chikka Krishna Wadayar became the King of Wadayar Empire. The Mysore state started weakening during this period. The de facto rulers took control of the administration and controlled the state of Mysore. Nizams and Marathas started attacking Mysore knowing that the state was weak.
Hyder Ali was very ambitious and efficient personality. He was initially appointed as Faujdar of Dindigal. Later, he joined the army of Mysore as well. Further, Hyder Ali started a factory of arms and ammunition. He expelled Marathas when they attacked the city of Srirangapatnam. In 1761, Hyder Ali arrested Chikka Krishna Wadayar and from 1761 to 1782 he ruled the state of Mysore on the name of Wadayars. Hyder Ali conquered territories like Bidnur, Malabar (ruled by Nayars), Calicut, Bellary, Chitradurgh, Rayalaseema (ruled by Nizams), Buthi, Cuddapah, Raidurgh.
Four Anglo Mysore Wars
Anglo Mysore War I - 1766 to 1769.
Anglo Mysore War II - 1780 to 1784.
Anglo Mysore War III - 1790 to 1792.
Anglo Mysore War IV - 1799.
Anglo Mysore War I
It was fought from 1766 to 1769. Hyder Ali led the Mysore troops against the British. Governor of Madras, Macantury lead the British troops. General Joseph was in charge in the war and he was defected. When Hyder Ali was about to occupy the Madras, the British declared cease war and a treaty was concluded in Madras.
The treaty of Madras was a status quo treaty. It also includes the provisions; restoration of territories and exchange of prisoners. The treaty also provides for defensive alliance. Under the provision of defensive alliance, both the parties shall support each other when they require help.
Anglo Mysore War II
In the treaty of Madras, the British and Hyder Ali of Mysore agreed for defensive alliance. However, the British never helped the Mysore when they were under the attack by Marathas. Moreover, the British attacked and captured the French town, Mahe. The town, Mahe, was under the control of the French with the help of Hyder Ali. The foregoing circumstances led to the second Anglo Mysore war. It was fought from 1780 to 1784.
Hyder Ali defeated Colonel Bailey and captured Arkot. He defeated Colonel Braithwhite too.
“The defeats of Bailey and Braithwhite could not destroy them. I can ruin the resources on land but can`t dry up the seas”. – Hyder Ali.
Later, Warren Hastings became the Governor General for the British. This time, Hyder Ali was defeated at Porto Novo. In 1782, Hyder Ali died and Tippu Sultan, son of Hyder Ali continued the second Anglo Mysore War. In 1782, British lead by Mathews was defeated. In 1784, the conflict came to an end with a treaty concluded at Mangalore. The treaty of Mangalore was a status quo treaty.
Anglo Mysore War III
The ruler of Travencore became disloyal to the Mysore. Tippu Sultan who dismissed Wadayars and came to power attacked Travencore for their disloyalty. The British gave their support to the rulers of Travencore and subsequently the conflict between the British and the Mysore once again came into being. The third Anglo Mysore war was fought from 1790 to 1792.
The British was lead by Governer General Cornwallis. He defeated Tippu Sultan. Corn Wallis requested the support of Marathas and Nizams to accomplish the task of defeating the Mysore led by Tippu Sultan. A Tripartite Alliance of British, Marathas and Nizams were formed against the Mysore. Ultimately, Tippu Sultan was defeated and a treaty was concluded at Srirangapatnam.
Provisions of the Treaty of Srirangapatnam
- 50% of the territory of Mysore shall be surrendered. It would be shared among the British, Marathas and the Nizams. Malabar, Balamahal and Dindigal were taken by the British. Krishna Region and Tungabadra Region were given to Nizams and Marathas respectively.
- War indemnity of 3 crores shall be paid to the British. The Mysore can pay the same in installments. The sons of Tippu Sultan were taken as guarantee till the total payment was paid.
Anglo Mysore War IV
The provisions of the treaty of Srirangapatnam were the causing factors for the fourth conflict between the British and the Mysore. The fourth Anglo-Mysore war was fought in 1799.
The Tippu Sultan of Mysore was killed in the war. The British attacked the fort of Tippu Sultan and the Mysore was finally defeated. A small state of Mysore was created subsequently and was given to the kin of Wadayars.