Anthropology 101: The Prime Directive
What it Means
The Prime Directive, as enunciated on Star Trek, is actually the foundation for Anthropological research.
One is never to interfere in a culture one encounters.
No matter what is happening, no matter how disgusting or stupid or violent, the anthropologist is not to interfere.
The famous story of the Virgin & the Volcano is usually recounted before the proto-anthropologist steps into the field.
The Volcano & the Virgin
Every so often, in this particular tribe, a virgin is tossed into the volcano to prevent it erupting.
This has been going on for centuries.
An Anthropologist arrives, he is outraged. He leaps to the fore, stopping this ritual.
In some versions of the story the Anthropologist and the Virgin are tossed into the volcano. In others, when the volcano erupts, the Anthropologist is chopped to pieces.
In a third, when the Volcano doesn't erupt and the Chief sees the power moving from him to the Anthropologist he tosses the Anthropologist into the volcano.
No matter which way it goes, it doesn't end well for the Anthropologist.
In most studies, the facts are not as clear as in the Volcano & the Virgin.
However, without a volcano, the dangers to the Interfering Anthropologist are the same.
The leader, be he the Chief of a Tribe, a Don in a City gang, or an elected official takes interference as an encroachment on his power.
Hence, suggesting one change some centuries old practice is not going to go over well.
As a bye-product, it makes the research worthless, because the Anthropologist instead of studying the culture is now interfering in it.
If one examines current events, one sees the dangers of trying to go against a culture.
For example, attempting to have children vaccinated in particular countries.
Attempts to vaccinate have stirred up tribal leaders and led to the deaths of
medical personal. The result is that a disease like polio, which could have been eradicated, persists.
The problem is that whomever was sent to do the original study on the culture of the persons one intends to vaccinate, (if a study was actually done) did not truly investigate.
If a Study was actually done, a proper study by properly trained Anthropologists, who would have explored the culture to the extent that s/he could have the leaders and the people themselves desire the vaccination.
Northern Nigeria resisted vaccination. Many of the citizens came down with polio. In another part of Africa, the studies done by Anthropologists were so useful that the vaccination became a test of the strength of the people.
Making the injection a bit more elaborate than it needed to be, all men and all women took that injection to prove how strong they were, and the children were encouraged to show that they could withstand it.
Hence, everyone was voluntarily vaccinated.
This is because the Anthropologist who studied these people, who saw how important it was for them to prove their ability to withstand pain, was able to use that information to their benefit.
The difficulty in stopping female circumcision has been the subject of may studies.
In some areas, offering cows to girls who forego the procedure has been successful.
In others areas, Imams have lectured against the procedure.
Neither method is actually working, as the culture which demands Female Circumcision is so powerful.
The ideas behind this brutal practice have got to be chipped away over time.
Those who study these cultures, who are to find a solution, can not simply stand
in front of the girl saying 'No.'
Although it is difficult to not interfere, it is the only way for the Anthropologist to have some credence, and, of course, to leave the area without difficulty.
It is the only way is to do a study which is, at least honest, and may inspire the solution.
Why The Prime Directive
It has been proven, whether in Alternate Dispute Resolution, or in successful Anthropological studies, that the only way to change a culture is to have the people themselves enforce the change.
In Alternate Dispute Resolution, the parties are encouraged to come to their own decisions. When they agree, no matter how silly it might appear to the mediator, the fact it is their decision is what is important.
In Anthropology the culture studied is not to be interfered with. People do things which might seem ridiculous to Western eyes, but may have actual scientific and/or survival value.
Although they may be horrendous practices, they allow a society to exist and to change those policies needs the members of that culture to change them.
Forcing change does not work well.