Arab conquest of Sindh
Muhamaad Bin Qasim
abdullah helped muhammad bin qasim to the conquest of sindh
Spread of Islam and political conquest
The birth and rise of Islam is a great event in the history of the world. Its founder was Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who was born at Mecca in Arabia in AD 570.
Islam spread rapidly in the world. After the passing away of the Prophet, the task of spreading Islam was taken over by the caliphs. During the regime of the first four caliphs, namely Abu Bakr, Omar, Osman and Ali, Islam spread into various parts of the world. Within 10 days the Arabs conquered Syria and Palestine from the Byzantine empire, Mesopotamia and Persia from the Sassanid Empire, as well as libya and Egypt. After the death of Caliph Osman, there were disputes between his successor Muawiya and Ali, Muhammad's (PBUH) son – in – law, Ali was murder in AD 661 which led to a permanent split into two groups – the Sunnis and the Shi' its, the Shi' ites being the followers of Ali.
In AD 661, the Arabs established a capital at Damascus and Muawiya became the first of the Umayyad dynasty. Their territorial expansion continued as before. Muslims armies invaded Central Asia, Afghanistan, Armenia, North Africa and even Spain. Arabic became a universal language across the Islamic world, except in Persia which retained its distinct Shi' ite culture and Persian language. The common language helped ideas and knowledge to spread quickly from one place to another.
In AD 750 the Umayyad dynasty was overthrown by the Abbasid dynasty which ruled the Islamic world for 500 years. Under Al – Mansur, their first caliph, they moved their capital to Baghdad. Their most famous ruler was Haru – al – Rashid (AD 708 – 809). the empire was unified, its culture flourished and Baghdad became a world centre for astronomy, mathematics, geography, medicine, law and philosophy. Later, the Abbasid caliphate gradually lost power and the Muslim empire disintegrated into emirates.
CONQUEST OF SINDH : 711-713 A.D
The establishment of Muslims rule in the greater part of India
The spectacular military successes of the Arabs from Central Asia to Spain were based on two factors: their urge to spread Islam and their desire to possess the lands and wealth of other countries. It was inevitable that they would advance to India also. The first recorded Arab expedition to India was a naval enterprise sent for the conquest of the thane near Bombay (Mumbai) in AD., 636 – 637 during the caliphate of Omar, but it failed. Other expeditions were sent by land against Kirman (eastern Iran) and Makran (sea coast of Balochistan), but the military successes were not followed by annexation.
It is stated that the Arabs were provoked to conquer Sindh in AD 711. Among the various reasons given, one was to punish the pirates of Debal, a seaport of Sindh. These pirates had plundered ships carrying presents for the Caliph sent by the ruler of Ceylon. The first two expeditions to conquer Sindh failed. But the third expedition, sent in AD. 712 under Mohammad – bin – Qasim, took the town of Debal by storm. A large booty into his hands and Dahir, the ruler of Sindh, died fighting heroically at Rewar.
After conquering Sindh, Mohammad – bin – Qasim captured Multan and began to plan the conquest of the rest of India. However, before he could implement his plan, he was executed on the orders of the Caliph.
By AD 781, the authority of the Caliph in Sindh became virtually extinct. Sindh became divided into number of petty states. By the close of the ninth century, it was cut off from the caliphate.
With the exception of the frontier regions of Sindh and Multan, India remained unaffected by the Arab conquests. The establishment of Muslims rule in the greater part of India began with the invasion of the country by Mahmud Ghaznavi, the Turkish ruler of Ghazni (Afghanistan) about two centuries after the Arab conquest of Sindh.