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Aryans looked different from the indigenous people of India
rig veda sanskrit
Vedic knowledge from Krishna, Brahma Samhitha
Vedic literature contains the sacred knowledge of the Indo Aryans
The core of this literature consists of Hymns or mantras composed by rishis or Vedic seers in praise of or as prayer to different Gods. These hymns were composed over a long period of time. Towards the end of the Vedic period they were collected into four collections or Samhitas (the word samhita means a collection) known as the Rig Veda, Samaveda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. As the hymns were recited while performing the Vedic rituals, other works known as Brahmanas which explain, the rituals were composed.
The meaning and purpose of the hymns and rituals as understood by different sages is explained in a third section of the Vedic literature known as the Aranyakas. The fourth or the last section of the Vedas is known as Upanishad. Upanishads contain the thoughts of different sages about not only the meaning of sacrifice but of the meaning and purpose of life itself.
Lastly, some later works on grammar, etymology, pronunciation, astronomy, rituals, and metres used in Vedic hymns, are collectively known as the Vedangas. The Vedangas do not form a part of the Vedas but form subsidiary Vedic literature. This entire literature is divided into early and later Vedic literature.
Early vedic literature
Early vedic literature consists of the Smahita of the Rig veda.
Later vedic literature
Later vedic literature consists of the Samhita of the three other Vedas and the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads of all the four Vedas. It also includes the Vedangas. It may also be noted here that almost all hymns of the Samaveda Samhita are taken from the Rig veda.
Our study of the Vedic Period is also divided into Early and Later Vedic Period on the basis of the sources used for their study. Thus -
1. Early Vedic Period is the period during which the hymns of the Rig Veda Samhita were being composed.
2. Later Vedic Period is the period when the rest of the Vedic literature, that is, the Samhitas of the three other Vedas and the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads were composed.
The history Aryans
Aryans were half - nomadic tribes who migrated from outside India
Aryans lived at India in the Year 1500 to 1000 BC. This period is known as the Early Vedic period.
The Aryans were half - nomadic tribes who migrated from outside India. Historians are of the opinion that the Aryans originally came from Central Asia. Population increased, divided as groups moved to different places, in search of a better place. Semigroups gone northwards into Europe, other moved south and came to Perisa, while the luckiest one moved farther eastward and arrived in Bharat. Those who came to India were called Indo- Aryans.
The Rig Veda, our chief sources of information about this age, refers to the land of the Sapta Sindhu. A number of rivers have been mentioned, including the Indus and its tributaries and the Ganga , Yamuna. The indicates that the Aryans inhabited along the Hindus Valley and upper Ganga valley.
The groups (tribes) of Aryans was not friendly, rather at war with each other. They tried steal each other's cattle. When new tribes arrived, they fought with the old ones and defeated them. The old tribes were forced to move eastwards into the interior of the country for settlement.
The Aryans looked different from the indigenous people of India. They were tall, fair, with a pointed nose and oval face. They lived in the Indus Valley region. Aryans described, the people of indigenous as dark skinned, with thick lips and no nose (which actually meant snub noses). Referred to as dasas, that is, slaves.
The Aryans were essentially rural and were dependent on cattle rearing. Aryans know well about agriculture.
Vedas composed in Davanagari (Sanskrit) , the language of the Aryans. Vedas are four. The oldest book is Rig Veda . They are a collection (samhitas) of 1017 hymns inverse (shlokas), divide group into chapters called mandalas. The tribes sang the hymns in praise of gods and goddesses. These hymns inform about the social and economic life of the Aryans.
Other Vedas three are part the Rig Veda. The book Sama veda written chants only. The book of Yajurveda sacrificial prayers and the book of Atharva Veda is magic formulas meant to cure ailments. The Rig Brahmana was composed later. This was the explanatory notes on the Rig Samhita.