ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Battle of Actium

Updated on December 22, 2011

The Battle of Actium was a crucial naval battle between Mark Antony and Octavian, who at the time of the battle ruled the Roman world, Antony in the east and Octavian in the west. By the battle of Actium, Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) won the mastery of the Roman world. It took place on September 2, 31 B.C., in the Ionian Sea, off Actium. Actium is a promontory of Acarnania on the west coast of Greece, at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf.

Antony advanced his army in September to Actium, where he established winter quarters on the flat, sandy headland. His fleet of 400 large vessels was anchored offshore. It included one squadron that belonged to Cleopatra, queen of Egypt and Antony's paramour. Octavian had moved his army across the Ionian Sea and occupied a position on the Epirote coast, just north of Actium.

Agrippa, who commanded Octavian's fleet of about 400 small but capable ships, cut off Antony's supply communications to the south. Antony's forces were besieged on two sides by the enemy and weakened by many desertions. Acting largely under Cleopatra's influence, he rejected proposals to withdraw his army into Macedonia and decided on a naval battle.

Antony deployed his fleet in three formations to face Octavian's fleet, also in three formations. Cleopatra's squadron was to the rear of Antony's forces, supposedly supporting them. When the wind shifted, both sides attempted an outer flanking movement. In the fighting that followed, Octavian's smaller ships were able to outmaneuver Antony's cumbersome fleet. Antony's center and left backwatered, and portions of his immediate command raised their oars in a token of surrender. Left with no alternative but flight, Cleopatra's squadron broke through the front ranks and sailed for Egypt. Antony followed, leaving the rest of his command to its fate. Octavian captured about 300 ships, many of which he burned. A week later Antony's land army surrendered.

In commemoration of his triumph, Octavian enlarged the temple of Apollo at Actium, which dated from the 5th century B.C., and there dedicated his newly won war trophies. He instituted games (held every five years) at Actium and built Nicopolis ("City of Victory") on the site of his army's camp near present-day Preveza.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)