ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Boston Campaign - American Revolutionary War

Updated on December 16, 2016
Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis believes it is so important to educate our children on Early American History, for it is what shaped our country.

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown
Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown | Source

Determination and Dedication

The Boston Campaign is where American Revolutionary War started.

When one visits the Appalachian regions it can bring home to the heart what happened there so very many years ago with the determination and dedication of the colonists.

They came to a new land to seek independence and their own way of life. They were willing to fight and die for it to give their children and future generations the right to stand strong in their own home land and know what freedom is.

The American Revolutionary War began with the Boston Campaign, 1774 - 1776. Many skirmishes between the colonists and the British occurred prior to and during the Boston Campaign over actions taken by Parliament and the presence of the British regiments.

Education in History

Did you study about the American Revolution in school ?

See results

Boston Massacre

The Townshend Acts of 1767 by the British Parliament placed duties on such commodities as paper, glass, and paint that the American colonies had to import.

The Sons of Liberty, a political group whose aim was to protect the rights of the colonists, protested along with other patriotic organizations, and several actions were taken. Boycotts and protests of the imported items caused tensions to escalate and eventually led to the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770.

The Boston Massacre came about when several civilians began harassing a British sentry. Eight other British soldiers gathered to support the sentry and fired into the crowd at the civilians. Three people were killed and several others wounded -- two died later from wounds received in the incident.

Boston Massacre Engraved by Paul Revere

The bloody massacre perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5th 1770 by a party of the 29th Regt. According to the Library of Congress
The bloody massacre perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5th 1770 by a party of the 29th Regt. According to the Library of Congress | Source

Boston Tea Party

On December 16, 1773, another incident occurred which became known as the Boston Tea Party. This was another protest by the Sons of Liberty. Three ships were seized by colonists and all the tea was thrown into Boston Harbor.

This action taken by the Sons of Liberty has been considered the major incident that encouraged the American Revolution. Since this event led to Parliament enforcing the "Intolerable Acts", colonists responded with even more protests. Continued colonial resistance to acts of Parliament and the British regiments enforcing them, escalated tensions and the crisis led to the Revolutionary War.

Boston Tea Party by Nathaniel Currier

Boston Tea Party by Nathaniel Currier
Boston Tea Party by Nathaniel Currier | Source

Patriot Militia

By April 1775, the Patriot militia of the thirteen colonies were ready to fight and give their lives to defend their independence and new country. They were a powerful force that kept growing, but they lacked organization and strategic skills. To mobilize the many units of the militia, they had to be brought together as one army, with qualified leaders.

The man chosen to lead the growing army and bring organization and strategic skills to the Patriot militia units was General George Washington, who had been given command of the Continental Army in July of 1775 by the Second Continental Congress.

On April 19, 1775 the first open armed conflict between Great Britain and the American colonies were the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote a memorial poem in 1837 which he titled the Concord Hymn. In the first stanza he wrote the phrase that became well-known as the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. "The shot heard 'round the world" over time became a phrase for other important events in wars, sports, cultural and social events.

Following the Lexington and Concord battles, the militia (Continental Army) laid siege to Boston. The Battle of Bunker Hill, one of the worst encounters for both sides, was during the "Siege of Boston". With Washington's skills of leadership, the ever growing militia became organized and battle ready.

Several other campaigns and numerous battles were fought till the colonies finally won their freedom and independence from the British monarch and no longer had to deal with Parliament.

General George Washington, 1732 - 1799

General George Washington at Trenton, by John Trumbull, 1792
General George Washington at Trenton, by John Trumbull, 1792 | Source

American Allies and a Turning Point in the war

If not for alliance of France, Spain, and the Republic of the United Netherlands (Dutch Republic), the outcome of the American Revolutionary War would certainly have meant a victory for Britain and no independence for America.

The Continental Army received weapons, ammunition and supplies from the allies. France was America's strongest supporter -- Spain and the Dutch Republic were allies of France. With Spain warring against Britain in west Florida, this kept America's southern flank secured. France and the Dutch Republic were at war with Britain and threatened to invade them. All this put a great strain on the British military.

King Louis XVI of France had previously sent support in secrecy to the Continental Army. Since the surrender of Burgoyne, which was a turning point in favor of the Americans, France sent more support in the form of soldiers, weapons and supplies. France had officially joined the war on America's side.

King Louis XVI of France, 1754 - 1793

Antoine-François Callet, King Louis XVI, 1779, in his Grand Royal apparel.
Antoine-François Callet, King Louis XVI, 1779, in his Grand Royal apparel. | Source

Confrontation at Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill

On June 17, 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill was fought. This was the most fierce and bloodiest battles of the Revolutionary War. The British had begun a wall to set up a battle line at Bunker Hill after their retreat from the Battles of Lexington and Concord, then abandoned the site in April, retreating further into the Boston area.

Having seen the beginning of a defense line, a detachment of colonial militia took it over and fortified the wall at Bunker Hill, and also on Breed's Hill, for their own battle line.

By this time of the war, General Gage had been recalled to England and had been replaced by General William Howe (5th Viscount Howe). When the colonial army had taken over the Bunker Hill fortification, General Howe attacked and seized Charlestown peninsula. Three attacks came from Howe's forces and, because the colonial militia ran out of ammunition supplies, they had to retreat to Cambridge, just north of Boston across the other side of Charles River. They had suffered heavy losses.

Although the victory was attributed to the British, their losses were even heavier, with 226 troops killed and over 800 wounded.

The seige continued however, with the British being more penned in to Boston with no way through the colonial forces.

Battle of Bunker Hill

The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill by John Trumbull
The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill by John Trumbull | Source

Surrender of Cornwallis

In October 1781, the battles were over. With the surrender of Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown, victory for America was fully realized. General George Washington of the Continental Army and John Baptiste Comte de Rochambeau of the French Army troops had led the last major battle on land.

The outcome of the Battle of Yorktown spurred negotiations in Britain to end the war. When it was also apparent that support of the war was dropping in London, the Commons voted to end the war in April 1782, one month after the resignation of British Prime Minister Lord North was received.

On November 25, 1783, British troops gave up their hold on New York City and returned to Britain. The official end of the war was on September 3, 1783, when the Treaty of Paris and the Treaties of Versailles were signed.

Jean-Baptiste Comte de Rochambeau, 1725 - 1807

Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau, Marechal De France (1725-1807)
Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau, Marechal De France (1725-1807) | Source

American Revolution

© 2013 Phyllis Doyle Burns


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)