ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • Elementary, Middle School & High School

Challenges Facing Inclusive Education in Developing Countries

Updated on February 18, 2013

By Anthony M. Wanjohi

Inclusive education is about the integration approach of the disabled learners in schools. It is under this inclusion model that learners with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled learners. While inclusive education has its benefits, there are enormous challenges hindering its effective implementation especially in developing countries. This article briefly examines the following: Inadequate Educational Facilities, Poor Teacher Training, Poor policy implementation.

Inadequate Educational Facilities

In most of the schools especially in developing countries, there are no adequate educational facilities. These range from lack of adequate reading materials, to desks, classrooms among others. Inclusive education has led to an increased number of learners in the learning institutions. This leads to a decrement in the available resources in the schools. According to as study conducted by Oakes and Saunders (2002), shortages of teaching and learning materials has a negative impact on the learners especially the disabled ones with less knowledge about a subject. This forces most of the parents to remove their children from the schools and take them to special schools.

Lack of adequate resources to meet the educational needs of the disabled learners in the regular schools cause most of the parents to have doubt as to whether the needs of their children are adequately met in these schools. Thus, most parents prefer to take their children to the special schools as compared to the inclusive schools. This affects negatively the success of inclusive education.

Additionally, many schools in the developing countries are characterized by inadequacies in basic facilities such as properly ventilated classroom, furniture suitable for the disabled and non-disabled learners, kitchen, safe clean water, playground, toilets and play material among others (IAEYC, 1991). This limits the enrollment of the disabled learners in the regular schools hence affecting the success of inclusive education.

Poor Teacher Training

Teacher’s training is equally important in the teaching and learning process. Most of the teachers do not have adequate training on handling both the disabled and non-disabled learners in one class. This affects the understanding of some of the learners of which it is reflected in their performance. Continued poor performance among the disabled learners due to the poor teaching skills and abilities of the teachers triggers their poor enrollment in the regular schools. Angrist and Lavy (2001) observe that lack of adequate and proper training received by teachers lead to a reduction in their pupils' test scores. Thus, lack of adequate teacher training to handle both the disabled and non-disabled learners in the same class negatively affects the success of inclusive education.

Poor inclusive education policy implementation

There is no adequate support for inclusive education from the concerned stakeholders. In most of developing countries, most of the parents of the disabled learners are cautious about placing their children in an inclusion program because of fears that the children will be ridiculed by other children, or be unable to develop regular life skills in an academic classroom. This is mainly attributed to poor policy implementation. Many governments in the developing countries have not been able to effectively implement inclusive education policy framework. In some countries like Kenya, the education policy is an exclusively one-sided policy and fails to meet the needs of the challenged learners in inclusive education arrangement. One case in point is the endlessly controversial national exam, which fails to capture learners' diverse backgrounds and needs (Sugiharto, 2008).

Conclusion

Inclusive education in most of the developing countries still remains in the realm of theory and far from practice; it is still grappling with problems of policy implementation, an environment that is not conducive for practice. The success of inclusive education is hindered by other factors like community’s attitude towards disability, lack of adequate involvement of all stakeholders among others. As such, more still needs to be done in order to ensure that the best is achieved from the objectives of inclusive education.

References

Angrist, J. D., & Lavy, V. (2001). Does Teacher Training Affect Pupil Learning? Evidence from Comparisons in Jerusalem Public Schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 19(2), 343-369.

IAEYC (1991). Accreditation Criteria and Procedures of the NationalAcademy of Early Childhood Program. Washington, DC: International Association for the Education of Young Children (IAEYC)

Oakes, J. & Saunders, M. (2002). Access to Textbooks, Instructional Materials, Equipment, and Technology: Inadequacy and Inequality in California’s Public Schools. Los Angeles: UCLA's Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access.

Sugiharto, S. (2008). Challenges in implementing inclusive education. Available online at http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/06/07/challenges-implementing-inclusive-education.html

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)