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Sinclair Managing Stress Study Guides

Updated on February 6, 2018
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I am a special needs counselor for grade K-5 and I have a bachelor's degree in Applied Psychology. I've worked with children for 5+ years.

Chapter 1

1. Identify the 4 stages of the fight or flight response.

Stimuli form one of the five sense is sent to the brain

The brain deciphers the stimulus as either a threat or a nonthreat. If the stimuli is not a threat than this is the end of the response (scream from a TV) If it is a threat, the brain then activates the nervous and endocrine system to quickly prepare to defend and/or escape.

The body stays activated, aroused, or “keyed-up” until the threat is over.

The body returns to homeostasis, a state of physiological calmness, once the threat is gone.

2. Describe the types of stress discussed in chapter one and identify the type of stress most often associated with illness and disease.

Eustress: Good stress; any stressor that motivates an individual towards an optimal level of performance or health. An example would be falling in love or meeting a famous person.

Neustress: Any kind of information or sensory stimulus that is perceived as unimportant or inconsequence. An example would be the news of an earthquake in a remote part of the world.

Distress: The unfavorable or negative interpretation of an event (real or imagined) to be threatening that promotes continued feelings of fear or anger; more commonly known as stress. Includes both Acute and Chronic stress.

Acute Stress: Stress that is intense in nature but short in duration. An example would be that you are pulled over for speeding, but only given a warning.

Chronic Stress: Stress that is not as intense as acute stress but lingers for a prolonged period of time. An example would be financial problems, illness, and/or disease.

3. Identify the reactions associated with the fight or flight response.

Increased heart rate to pump oxygenated blood to working muscles

Increased blood pressure to deliver blood to working muscles

Increased ventilation to supply working muscles with oxygen for energy metabolism

Vasodilation of the arteries to the body’s arms and legs with the greatest muscle mass

Increased serum glucose for metabolic processes during muscle contractions

Increased free fatty acid mobilization as an energy source for prolonged activity

Increased blood coagulation and decreased clotting time in the event of bleeding

Increased muscle strength

Decreased gastric movement and abdominal blood flow to allow blood to go to working muscles

Increased perspiration to cool body-core temperature

4. Discuss the Tend and Befriend theory.

Theories presented by Shelley Taylor that states that women who experience stress don’t necessarily run or fight, but rather turn to friends to cope with unpleasant events and circumstances.

5. Identify the holistic definition of stress and describe the importance of perception in the stress response.

Stress is the inability to cope with a perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations.

The important word to emphasize is perceived, for what might seem to be a threat to one person may not even merit a second thought for another individual.

6. Describe the types of stressors that cause stress and identify the category of stressors that appears to make up the greatest amount of our stress.

Biological influences are environmental influences that may affect our biological rhythms. For example, some people are very sensitive to a lack of sunlight and may suffer from what is known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). This lack of sunlight is believed to influence our circadian rhythms, which may in turn affect mood and behavioral patterns, including sleep.

Social stressors include environmental factors such as overcrowding and economic or financial hardship. In today's economy it is the rare person who doesn't experience some concern over financial and or employment issues.

Psychintrapersonal influences are the type of stressors in which our perceptions are used to defend our ego. These stressors are by far the most common source of our stress. An example of a psych intrapersonal stressor would be a person using a defense mechanism to explain a failure. For instance, if a person failed a math test, instead of seeing this as a learning opportunity they may interpret this situation as an indication of their worth as a person. Because this failure is an attack on their ego, they may not only exaggerate the importance of this failure, but they might also blame an external source for the failed exam. When we use defensive techniques to handle stress, we have lost the opportunity to change the outcome of similar future events. (makes up greatest percent of our stress)

Study Guide Chapter 3: Physiology of Stress

  1. Identify the role that the limbic system and the neocortical level of the brain plays in the physiology of stress.
    1. The limbic system is the emotional control center; it is responsible for the biochemical chain of events that constitutes the stress response.
    2. The neocortical level of the brain is the level of the brain where sensory information is processed or decoded as a threat or non-threat and where cognitive thought process takes place.
  2. Discuss the effects of cortisol during the stress response.
    1. Cortisol is a stress hormone released by the adrenal glands that helps the body prepare for fight or flight by promoting the release of glucose and lipids in the blood for energy metabolism.
  3. Identify the role that the adrenal gland plays in the stress response.
    1. The adrenal glands also known as the stress glands are located on top of each kidney, they house and release several stress hormones. They are responsible for regulating stress and glucose levels.
  4. Identify the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
    1. The sympathetic nervous system is the branch of the central nervous system that triggers the flight or fight response when some element of threat is present. The Sympathetic Nervous System which initiates the stress response.
    2. The parasympathetic nervous system is the branch of the central nervous system that specifically calms the body through the parasympathetic response. The Parasympathetic Nervous System which induces the relaxation response.

Study Guide Chapter 4: Stress and Disease

  1. Identify the term Psychoneuroimmunology.
    1. The study of the effects of stress on disease; treats the mind, central nervous system, and immune system as one interrelated unit.
  2. Discuss the research of Kiecolt and Glaser.
    1. Their research suggests that chronic stress accelerates the aging process (which entails many diseases) through overproduction of a specific proinflammatory cytokine.
  3. Describe the Borysenko model and how it explains the relationship between stress and disease. Be able to identify the disorders that Borysenko’s discusses in his model.
    1. This model states that stress can affect our autonomic and immune system. When we are under stress our autonomic nervous system may be over responsive, and this can lead to diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease and migraines. Stress may also cause a deregulation of the immune system, which may worsen or bring on diseases such as cancer or lupus. While stress is not a single cause of disease, it interacts with our genetic and biological predispositions to disease.
    2. When the autonomic nervous system releases an abundance of stress hormones, several physiological repercussions can result.
      1. Migraines, ulcers, and hypertension
  4. Discuss some of the areas that Pelletier believes should be investigated further to develop a stress disease model.
    1. The Pelletier Model is a theory that maintains that there may be a relationship between stress and disease, but he believes further research needs to be completed before any conclusions can be made. He points to several areas that he believes should be investigated further to help develop a scientifically valid stress disease model. He cites phenomena such as multiple personalities, spontaneous remission and hypnosis as areas that might shed light on the relationship between the mind and the body.
    2. Multiple Personality disorder
    3. Spontaneous remission
    4. Hypnosis
    5. Placebos and nocebos
    6. Cell memory
    7. Subtle energy
    8. Immunoenhancement
  5. Describe Pert’s stress disease model and the role that neuropeptides play in the stress disease relationship.
    1. Another stress disease model is the Pert Model. Candice Pert discovered that chemical messengers known as neuropeptides link the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) with immune cells. Her research has led her to believe that emotional responses may actually suppress or enhance the functioning of these immune cells. Thus, our emotions may have a direct effect on our body's ability to protect us from disease. Therefore, your ability to enhance your immune system may be affected by your ability to reduce your stress and enhance the expression of positive vs. negative emotional responses.
    2. Neuropeptides (messenger hormones) produced in the brain are able to fit into receptor sites of lymphocytes, much like keys fit into a lock. This communication system is altogether different from the efferent/afferent observed between neuromuscular tissue and the brain.
  6. Identify the immune system related disorders covered in chapter 4.
    1. Common cold and influenza
    2. Allergies
    3. Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus
    4. Ulcers and colitis
    5. Cancer

Study Guide Chapter 5: Toward a Psychology of Stress

  1. Discuss the role that Jung believed dreams played in helping people understand the source of their stress and how dreams can assist in problem solving.
    1. Dream interpretation is essential to the resolution of stress and anxiety
  2. Define tragic optimism.
    1. The mindset of a person that find the value and meaning in the worst situations.
  3. Discuss Wayne Dyer’s theory of stress and the role he believes worry and guilt play in the stress response.
    1. Guilt or worry is associated with virtually every stressor perceived by Americans
    2. Guilt and worry are the most ineffective coping techniques for stress management because they perpetuate the avoidance of stress-related issues.
  4. Describe the theory of Buscaglia and how it relates to stress and emotional well-being.
    1. Buscaglia believed low self-esteem and our inability to love ourselves unconditionally lead to a lack of self-love. In order to receive unconditional self-love, one must accept their own uniqueness. His term for the quality that makes each person unique is the X-factor.
    2. He believed love was a choice, and must be acted upon. He also, stated that in order for love to grow, we must continue to grow. As just as people change and grow, so does love. If one is unwilling to grow, then their ability to experience dynamic love is not possible. For love to grow, it requires patience and determination.
    3. Loving others requires risk, and risk can lead to stress. However, Buscaglia maintained that good self-esteem and the ability to love are factors that make us stress resistant. Buscaglia, once said of love, "to love is to risk living fully."
  5. Identify the traits Maslow believes self-actualized people exhibit.
    1. A highly efficient perception of reality
    2. Acceptance
    3. Naturalness and Spontaneity
    4. Problem centering
    5. Solitude and Independence
    6. A continual freshness of appreciation
    7. Creativity
    8. Interpersonal relationships
    9. Human kinship
    10. A democratic character
    11. Strong sense of ethical values
    12. A sense of humor
    13. Mystical or sensations
  6. Describe the Tibetan perspective of mind and stress.
    1. Suffering stress is a consequence of desires with strong attachments
  7. Discuss the field of positive Psychology.
    1. A field of modern psychology that emphasizes the brighter side of human behavior with a specific focus on positive emotions, positive personality traits, and positive institutions
  8. Identify the characteristics of defense mechanisms.
    1. Denial
    2. Repression
    3. Projection
    4. Rationalization
    5. Displacement
    6. Humor
  9. Describe the theory of Kubler–Ross and the stages of grief discussed in this theory.
    1. Stages of grieving- a process of mental preparation for death application to everyone
      1. Denial
      2. Anger
      3. Bargaining
      4. Depression
      5. Acceptance

Study Guide for Chapter 6: The Stress Emotions: Anger, Fear and Joy

  1. Identify the number of times per day the average person gets angry according to a study cited in Psychology today.
    1. 15
  2. Compare the gender differences in regards to how anger is expressed and experienced.
    1. Male- social mores allow men to express anger openly and freely in public in sports
    2. Women-are denied the opportunity to express their anger
  3. Identify the percentage of Americans who have levels of hostility that can produce health problems.
    1. 20%
  4. Describe the anger management strategies described in your textbook.
    1. Change your perspective. - Often our interpretations of situations trigger our anger. For example, if you are angry with a person or situation, ask yourself, "will this matter a year from now?" If the answer is "no" then why waste your energy? Life is too short to sweat the small stuff.
    2. Develop a plan to deal with a frustrating situation - Don't play the role of victim. If you can change a situation, then take steps to make the needed changes. If the situation can't be changed, then acceptance may be needed. Don't waste time on things you can't control.
    3. Be Assertive - It is important to be able to express to others both our needs and our boundaries. Boundaries refer to our ability to communicate to others how we expect to be treated. For example, people who have good boundaries can tell other people "no" and don't allow others to manipulate them with guilt or other tactics. If we don't express our expectations to others, we have no right to feel angry if our needs go unmet.
  5. Identify the part of the brain associated with fear, anger and emotional memories.
    1. Amygdala
  6. Identify the types fears discussed in chapter 6.
    1. Fear of failure
    2. Fear of rejection
    3. Fear of the unknown
    4. Fear of death
    5. Fear of isolation
    6. Fear of the loss of self-dominance
  7. Describe the strategies to over come fear as discussed in chapter 6.
    1. Uncovering suppressed or repressed childhood memories
    2. Behavior therapy
    3. Systematic desensitization
    4. Exposure desensitization
    5. Assertiveness training
    6. Control and reframe thoughts and emotions
  8. Describe the characteristics of the anger mismanagement styles covered in chapter 6.
    1. Somatizers
    2. Self-punishers
    3. Exploders
    4. under handers

Chapter 7

  1. Identify the characteristics associated with the type A personality.
    1. Time urgency - These individuals tend to be impatient and quickly grow agitated when they have to wait. They tend to feel uncomfortable about relaxing when the agenda is not set. Time itself can even become a stressor.
    2. Polyphasia - This is the idea of multi-tasking. In other words, doing or taking on numerous activities all at once to save time. Often this method of doing things will compromise the integrity of outcomes.
    3. Ultra-competitiveness - Type A’s will often be very self-conscious and compare themselves to others with similar social status. These individuals may also appear to be egocentric, or perceiving that they are more important than others.
    4. Rapid speech patterns - Many type A people will raise their voices in normal conversation or utilize explosive words to influence, control, or intimidate others. Often these individuals will even finish sentences for other people.
    5. Manipulative control - This is based in the concept of dominant control. Manipulative control occurs when an individual utilizes intimidation to control others.
    6. Hyper aggressiveness and hostility - Type A’s feel a need to dominate others. They will walk over other people to reach their goals, which tend to be very high. These individuals are aggressive and will come across as abrasive.
  2. Describe the characteristics of the co-dependent personality.
    1. People who love (conditionally) too much
    2. Addictive personality
  3. Discuss the traits of the helpless hopeless personality.
    1. Blame others
    2. Low self esteem
    3. Poor self-motivation
    4. Cognitive distortion
    5. Emotional dysfunction
    6. External locus of control
  4. Identify the traits of the hardy personality.
    1. Commitment
    2. Control
    3. Challenge
  5. Describe the traits of the sensation seeking personality.
    1. Risk taker
    2. Adventurous spirit
    3. Spontaneous
    4. Calculating
    5. Self efficient
    6. Confident
    7. Optimistic
    8. Courage
    9. Creative
  6. Discuss the characteristics of the type D personality.
    1. Anxiety
    2. Depression
    3. Anger
  7. Discuss the relationship between self-esteem and how people respond to stress.
    1. Low self-esteem is a common denominator in stress prone personalities
    2. High self-esteem is a prerequisite for creating stress resistant personalities

Study Guide for Chapter 9: Cognitive Restructuring

  1. Define rational emotive behavior therapy and the premise on which this theory is based.
    1. It helps people cope with anxiety by changing the perceptions associated with the stressor.
      1. Developed by Albert Ellis
      2. Term coined by Meichenbaum in 1975
    2. Internal self-dialogue
  2. Describe the characteristics of cognitive distortions discussed in chapter 9.
    1. Distorting a situation beyond how bad it really is
    2. Mole hills into mountains
  3. Define the term toxic thought and describe the origin of toxic thoughts.
    1. Toxic thoughts are repeated negative thoughts that tend to pollute peoples’ view of their lives and of themselves.
    2. Toxic thought are created when a person becomes pessimistic. They become grounded in negativity.
  4. Describe the effects that optimistic and pessimistic thoughts can have on the body.
    1. Optimistic thoughts are associated with sound physical health.
    2. pessimistic thoughts can suppress the immune system.
  5. Discuss the additional tips for cognitive restructuring covered in chapter 9.
    1. Relax your mind
    2. Take responsibility for your own thoughts
    3. Fine-tune expectations
    4. Give yourself positive affirmation
    5. Accentuate the positive
  6. Describe the steps to initiate cognitive restructuring.
    1. Awareness
    2. Reappraisal of the situation
    3. Adoption and substitution
    4. Evaluation

Chapter 11: Study Guide

  1. Describe the long term benefits and effects of journal writing.
    1. Awareness of patterns regarding values, attitudes, and behaviors
    2. Sheds light on precursors to stress
    3. Personal resolution
    4. Promotes self esteem
    5. Learning what makes one angry, sad, and so on
    6. Strengthens bond of honesty between mind and soul
  2. Discuss the benefits of journal writing discovered by Jamie Pennebaker.
    1. Helps cope with stress
    2. Decrease elevated blood pressure
    3. Decrease cholesterol levels
    4. Decrease stress levels
    5. Helps people who suffer from fibromyalgia
    6. Helps people who are grieving a romantic breakup
    7. Cope with stressful live events
    8. Major cathartic release for wives of American soldiers serving in Iraq

Study Guide for Chapter 13: Humor Therapy

  1. Compare the different types of humor and be able to identify examples of the types of humor discussed in chapter 12.
    1. Conventional
    2. Life of the party
    3. Creative
    4. Good Sport
    5. Parody
    6. Satire
    7. Slapstick comedy
    8. Absurd/nonsense humor
    9. The double entendre
    10. Black humor
    11. Irony
    12. Dry humor
    13. Bathroom humor
    14. Sarcasm
  2. Identify the short term effects of laughter according to the studies conducted by William Fry.
    1. Initiation of the stress response
    2. Increase in heart rate
    3. Increased blood pressure
    4. Increased muscle tension
    5. Increased ventilation
  3. Identify the steps to initiate humor therapy in your life.
    1. Learn not to take life too seriously
    2. Find one humorous thing a day
    3. Work to improve imagination and creativity
    4. Swap a joke/cartoon with a friend
    5. Learn to hyper exaggerate when telling a story
    6. Build a humor library
    7. Find a host of varied humor venues
    8. Improve self-esteem
    9. Access your humor network

Study Guide for Chapter 15: Communication

  1. Compare the nonverbal communication methods known as physical elements and nonphysical elements. Identify an example of these communication methods.
    1. Physical
      1. Touch
      2. Emblems and illustrators
      3. Affect displays
      4. Regulators
      5. Adaptors
      6. Paralanguage
    2. Nonphysical
      1. Territorial space
      2. Clothing
  2. Discuss the elements involved in effective listening.
    1. One way to improve your listening skills is to paraphrase what the speaker has said. This will allow you to clarify the speaker's message and to let the speaker know they have been heard.
    2. Another way to become a better listener is to acknowledge the speaker's feelings. Showing empathy for another is a great way to let the person know they have been heard.
    3. Lastly, show attentiveness when listening. You can demonstrate attentiveness by making eye contact and asking questions of the speaker.
  3. Describe how vernacular differences can affect our communication.
    1. Vernacular means that different cultures have different definitions for the same word.
  4. Compare the conflict management styles covered in your textbook.
    1. Withdraw- removal from the problem
    2. Surrender- to habitually give in to the problem (bad way)
    3. Hostile aggression- intimidate others in to submissive agreement
    4. Persuasion- attempt to alter another person’s attitude or behavior
    5. Dialogue- verbal exchange
  5. Discuss the factors that may increase or decrease self-disclosure.
    1. Increase- shared trust, equal openness
    2. Decrease- rejection, alienation, violation of trust

Study Guide for Chapter 16: Resource Management: Managing Time and Money

  1. Discuss the steps to initiate good time management techniques such as the pareto principle, boxing, clustering etc.
    1. Prioritization
      1. ABC rank-order method
        1. Ranks task in order of priority
      2. Pareto principle
        1. Prioritize tasks by satisfaction factor 80/20 rule
    2. Scheduling
      1. Boxing
        1. Break the day into 3-5 hour chunks
      2. Time mapping
        1. Breaks the day into 15-30 minute segments
      3. Clustering
        1. For completion of errands outside of home and work used for mapping out responsibilities based on location
    3. Execution
      1. Assign goals
      2. Break large projects into smaller ones and assign a deadline for each
      3. Work on one section at a time until completion
      4. Reward yourself for each successful task completion
  2. Identify the tips for financial freedom.
    1. Make and follow a budget
    2. Live a sustainable lifestyle
    3. Freeze your credit cards
    4. See each purchase as an investment
    5. Consolidate your debt
    6. Consider opening a 401(k) or a Roth IRA as soon as possible
  3. Define the term time management.
    1. Time management is the prioritization, scheduling, and execution of daily responsibilities to a level of personal satisfaction. Effective time management does not mean you have more time; it means you make better use of the time you have
  4. Discuss the personality styles and behaviors that interfere with good time management.
    1. Type A personality
    2. Workaholism
    3. Technophile
    4. Time juggler
    5. Procrastinator
    6. Perfectionist
    7. Lifestyle behavior trap
  5. Identify the following tips to managing your time: create personal boundaries, edit your life, organizational skills, networking skills and delegation.
    1. Establish healthy boundaries with technology
    2. Schedule personal time in each day
    3. Edit your life
    4. Schedule interruptions
    5. Delegation
    6. An idea book
    7. Networking skills
    8. Organizational skills
    9. Balance

Study Guide for 18: Diaphragmatic Breathing and Chapters 19: Meditation

  1. Describe the visualization exercise known as energy breathing.
    1. A way to vitalize your body, by not only taking in air through the nose or mouth but, in effect, breathing through the whole body.
      1. Visualize energy in the form of a beam of light entering the top of your head. Bring the energy down from the crown of your head to your abdomen as you inhale. As you exhale allow the energy to leave through the top of your head.
  2. Define the term meditation.
    1. A practice of increased concentration that leads to increased awareness; a solitary practice of reflection on internal rather than external stimuli.
      1. Meditation is the quintessential respite to calm the mid from sensory overload.
  3. Describe exclusive meditation and the 5 actions used in exclusive meditation.
    1. A form of mediation wherein concentration is focused on one object to the exclusion of all other thoughts, to increased self-awareness and promote relaxation.
      1. Mental repetition- a thought is produced over and over again in conjunction with exhaling. This is done to release blocked energy, reinforce positive self-esteem, and/or calm the body/mind.
      2. Visual concentration- is the practice of visually focusing or staring at an object or image normally 3 to 5 feet away, like a candle flame, flower, seashell, beautiful scene, or mandala. A mandala is a circular object designed to be intense in color and often divided in four quarters.
      3. Repeated sounds (nadam) - A sound is repeated continually to help focus the mind’s attention. Ex. Beating drums, chimes, Tibetan bells, or Gregorian chants.
      4. Physical repetition- A repetitive motion such as the sensation of breathing or some form of aerobic exercise like running, swimming, or walking. These produce a meditative state from the sound of breathing or rhythmic motion of the hands and feet.
      5. Tactile repetition- Holding a small object such as a tumble stone, rosary beads, mala beads, or seashell also brings focus to the mind.
  4. Discuss the relaxation response and the 4 components of this relaxation method.
    1. The relaxation response is a book written by Benson to describe the steps to promote physiological homeostasis.
      1. A quiet environment- with minimal distractions where you are completely comfortable
      2. A Mental device- an object or tool used to replace all other thoughts it can include repetition of a mantra or concentrated breathing
      3. A Passive attitude- A frame of mind where you are open to thoughts and do not block the thoughts out
      4. A comfortable position- To relax the mind one must relax the body, the body should be relaxed with no sign of muscular tension, for example a sitting position
  5. Describe how Kabat-Zinn has used meditation to treat patients with chronic pain.
    1. Kabat-Zinn’s method of mindfulness utilizes association (getting in touch and comfortable with the pain).
    2. Kabat-Zinn describes several attitudes that are associated with mindfulness, including patience, trust, not doing, acceptance and letting go. When we live in the present moment we can let go of our judgments and resentments and fully attend to what we are currently engaged in. Kabt-Zinn states there are many benefits to living in the moment; these include a reduction of stress, increased productivity and concentration, and improved relationships.
  6. Discuss the techniques of Transcendental meditation.
    1. This meditation is the epitome of exclusive meditation in which all thoughts are eliminated.


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    • misty103 profile image

      misty103 3 years ago

      thank you.

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      Krystallynn 3 years ago

      There's a terrific amount of knegwodle in this article!

    • misty103 profile image

      misty103 3 years ago

      Glad you like it. I have a few other hubs with similar content that you might want to check out :)

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      Debra 3 years ago

      Thanky Thanky for all this good intmnoafior!