ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Chapter 4 of Managing Stress

Updated on December 1, 2012

Chapter 4 Study Guide

1.Identify the term Psychoneuroimmunology.

The study of the effects of stress on disease; treats the mind, central nervous system, and immune system as one interrelated unit.

2. Discuss the research of Kiecolt and Glaser.

Their research suggests that chronic stress accelerates the aging process (which entails many diseases) through overproduction of a specific proinflammatory cytokine.

3. Describe the Borysenko model and how it explains the relationship between stress and disease. Be able to identify the disorders that Borysenko’s discusses in his model.

This model states that stress can affect our autonomic and immune system. When we are under stress our autonomic nervous system may be over responsive, and this can lead to diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease and migraines. Stress may also cause a deregulation of the immune system, which may worsen or bring on diseases such as cancer or lupus. While stress is not a single cause of disease, it interacts with our genetic and biological predispositions to disease.

4. When the autonomic nervous system releases an abundance of stress hormones, several physiological repercussions can result.

Migraines, ulcers, and hypertension

5. Discuss some of the areas that Pelletier believes should be investigated further to develop a stress disease model.

The Pelletier Model is a theory that maintains that there may be a relationship between stress and disease, but he believes further research needs to be completed before any conclusions can be made. He points to several areas that he believes should be investigated further to help develop a scientifically valid stress disease model. He cites phenomena such as multiple personalities, spontaneous remission and hypnosis as areas that might shed light on the relationship between the mind and the body.

Multiple Personality disorder

Spontaneous remission


Placebos and nocebos

Cell memory

Subtle energy


6. Describe Pert’s stress disease model and the role that neuropeptides play in the stress disease relationship.

Another stress disease model is the Pert Model. Candice Pert discovered that chemical messengers known as neuropeptides link the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) with immune cells. Her research has led her to believe that emotional responses may actually suppress or enhance the functioning of these immune cells. Thus, our emotions may have a direct effect on our body's ability to protect us from disease. Therefore, your ability to enhance your immune system may be affected by your ability to reduce your stress and enhance the expression of positive vs. negative emotional responses.

Neuropeptides (messenger hormones) produced in the brain are able to fit into receptor sites of lymphocytes, much like keys fit into a lock. This communication system is altogether different from the efferent/afferent observed between neuromuscular tissue and the brain.

7. Identify the immune system related disorders covered in chapter 4.

Common cold and influenza


Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus

Ulcers and colitis


Critical Thinking Questions

1. Pick one of the stress disease theories from this chapter and discuss how this model explains the relationship between stress and disease. These models include: Pert, Lipton, etc.

2. Do you think this model does a good job of explaining the relationship between stress and disease, why or why not?

In Chapter Four of Managing Stress we learn about the different stress disease theories. One of the stress disease theories explored is the Gerber model. The Gerber model is different from the other models because it uses a holistic approach to how stress affects disease. The Gerber model hypothesizes that “stress related-symptoms that appear in the physical body are the manifestations of ‘problems’ that have occurred earlier as a result of a disturbance at a ‘higher energy level’” (Seaward 71).

The Gerber model is based on the theory that the human energy field or the electromagnetic field exists. The human energy field is believed to have many layers and each layer represents a state of consciousness. The believed levels of consciousness are physical body, etheric body, astral body, mental body, and casual body. Gerber says that in the optimal state of health all frequencies/layers of the human energy field are in complete harmony and a disruption of that harmony will lead to illness and disease. According to the Geber model thoughts like “This grade will put me on academic probation” (Seaward 71) paired with an emotion, in this case fear, will cause a disruption that will cascade through the energy levels. The result is an effect on some part of the body like a suppressed immune system.

The Gerber model uses the seven chakras to explain the different energy levels. The model goes onto explain what a disruption in each Chakra would cause as well as what each Chakra represents. The Gerber model teaches us that each chakra is unique and different. For example the first Chakra or the root chakra is associated with issues with safety and security, a disruption in the first chakra could cause lower-back pain, sciatica, and some forms of cancer. The fifth chakra, or the throat chakra, represents communication, personal expression, creativity, willpower, and a purpose in life. A disruption in the third chakra can result in throat and mouth cancers, stiffness in the neck, migraines, and cancerous tumors.

I feel that the Gerber model does a good job of explaining the relationship between stress and disease. I found that some of the other models were too technical in nature, for example the Lipton model goes into the study of molecular mechanisms and DNA. In contrast, the Gerber model is much easier to understand; it talks about chakras and energy levels, both topics that I do not need any prior medical or scientific background knowledge to understand.

forum question

Identify and briefly discuss two physical disorders or physical symptoms caused by stress.

In Managing Stress Chapter Four Brian Seaward introduces us to many different physical disorders and physical symptoms that are brought on by stress. Tension headaches is one such disorder; they are caused by “nervous tension in the facial muscles” (Seaward 83). The symptoms include pain in the lower-back, eyes, forehead, neck, and jaw. I have experienced pain in my forehead, neck, jaw, and lower-back. I have not experienced any type of pain in my eyes as a result of a tension headache. Another physical disorder caused by stress is temporomandibular joint dysfunction, also known as TMJD. TMJD is associated with the inability to express anger, excessive gum chewing, resting one’s chin on a hand, and nail biting. The symptoms of TMJD include clenching and grinding teeth, muscle pain, clicking or popping sounds when chewing, tension headaches, and earaches.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)