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Characteristics of Human Society
A society is mainly defined as a collection of individuals. It consists of individuals belonging to male and female and different age groups. The sex ratio in the society strike balance. The vital activities such as the birth, growth and death and going on in the society as long as the society is there. The immigration and emigration and the birth and death of the population also strike balance of the population in the society. But the improvement in the medical facilities increased the average life span of the individual there by lead to the population explosion.
A common geographical area: A particular society has been demarcated by the other with natural or artificial boundaries. The natural boundaries such as the rivers, mountain ranges or forests, canals etc. The artificial boundaries are there demarcated by political settlements. The people of the area share the resources in common and participate to reach the common goals of population. The people develop unity, we feeling, integrity oneness and collection consciousness.
Variety of interactions: The society is full of interactions and the different social processes and going on in the society. The people come face to face and interact among themselves. People share certain interests, attitudes, aptitudes, traditions, customs, values, objectives and mores. The people of the society depend upon each other for their survival. The division of labour among the individuals exists and the functions assigned to them are performed. This develops functional inter relationship among the members of the society.
Feeling of Solidarity: Since individuals of the society occupy a common territory, common customs and traditions common values, common history common cultures, self contained interdependence on each other obviously causes oneness and we feeling and develops feeling of solidarity among themselves. Though occasionally interact with other societies, they never lore their identity and remains united as long as their society survives.
Total culture: Each society has its own culture and the individual relationships are organized and structured by the culture. Because of commonness in the culture content, traditional of the society unite together. The society will be differentiated by the other society because of its unique culture. Culture is present in human society and the same is absent in animal society.
Social Organisation: Members of a society are socially organized. Society itself has a structure and the important components and elements of social structure are norms, rules, statuses, power, authority, groups, associations and institutions. The norms are the important which give it stability, order and structure to human society that without them social interaction would be difficult and chaotic. Organization of human society is maintained with the help of norms and institutions that pervade the society. Social organization helps maintain society in social equilibrium.
Functional differentiation: All the individuals in human society never perform similar activities and functions. They perform different functions depending upon their sex, age, interest, abilities, skills and other qualifications. There is more and more specialization in each work and are expected to do their work allotted to them. Thus several persons work on a single activity. There is division of labour depending upon sex and age.