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Chemistry Notes on Atomic Structure, Electron Configuration, Periodic Trends and Bonding

Updated on December 19, 2015

Electron Configuration Table

Click to view full size!
Click to view full size!

Electron Configuration

Paramagnetic - elements that have unpaired electrons

Dimagnetic - elements that do not have unpaired electrons

Pauli Exclusion Principle - No 2 electrons can have identical quantum numbers and will be found in opposite spins as marked by a (-1/2 and 1/2)

Degenerate orbitals - orbitals with the same principal energy levels (n) have the same amount of energy because there is no electron-electron repultion, only proton-electron attraction and kinetic energy motion.

Principal Energy Levels(n)

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  • 6

  • 7

Sublevels (L)

  • s

  • sp

  • spd

  • spdf

  • spdf

  • spdf

  • spdf

Excited Electron States

Wavelength and Photons

When you excite an electron (give it energy) it moves to a higher energy level. When it returns to the ground it gives off wave energy (some type of light). 

  • Speed of light: λv=C
  • Plank's Constant: ΔE=hv
  • v=hertz/frequency (cycles per second)
  • Energy=mass x the speed of light (C0
  • deBroglie's Equation: λ=h/(m)(v)

Periodic Table Trends

  • Ionization energy - decreases down a group, increases across a period
  • Electronegativity - decreases down a group, increases across a period
  • Atomic Radius - increases down a group, decreases across a period

Bonding (VSEPER)

***The electrons ALWAYS want to be as far apart as possible!***

Number of electron pairs and VSEPER (Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) arrangement.

  • 2 pairs = linear
  • 3 pairs = Trigonal planar
  • 4 pairs = tetrahedral
  • 5 pairs = Trigonal bipyramidal
  • 6 pairs = Octahedral

Click to view full size!  Steric number = number of electron pairs
Click to view full size! Steric number = number of electron pairs

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