ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Cities Began To Develop In The Indian Sub- Continent Around 2500 BC

Updated on December 6, 2016

Early civilization - India and China

Division Of The Past

Herodotus was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (present -day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (circa 484 – 425 BC). He is known as the Father of History. He gave the term history’. The word history’ comes from the Greek word` historia’ which means knowing or learning by inquiry’.

Division Of The Past

The past has been divided by historians into two periods – prehistory and history.

Prehistory: It is the period of human development when writing had not been invented and human beings did not know how to read and write. Hence there are no written records for this period.

We can know prehistory only through archeology. To understand prehistory, archaeologists dig deep into the ground and collect the remains of the past. These archaeological remains like tools, coins, bones, pots and jewelry help us to know about the past.

History: It is the period for which written records are available. This covers the time period after the invention of writing. Early writing was done on the barks of birch trees, clay tablets, palm leaves, copper plates and rock pillars.

Alamy- Indus Valley

Sources Of History

The difficult question now is how we can know about something that took place thousands of years ago.

A very simple answer to this difficult question is that we learn about the past from the remains, which people of that period have left behind. By studying these remains, archaeologists and historians tell us what might have happened in the past.

Sources of history are divided into two broad groups:

1) Archaeological. 2) Literary Sources

Some scientific techniques used to date things found in excavations

A) Radiocarbon (Carbon14) – This technique is used to date organic matters (eg. Bones).

B) Thermoluminescence Dating – This technique is used to date pottery.

Sub- Continent Around 2500 BC

The Indus Valley Civilization

The geography of a country plays a major role in its history. Similarly, the geographical features of India have greatly influenced its people and their history. Even the name of the country India’ has its origin in its geography. The Iranians and Greeks called River Indus as Hindoos, or Indos, and so the land to the east of the river was called India.

Cities began to develop in the Indian Sub- continent around 2500 BC. It was also during this time that human settlements emerged in Nile Valley in Egypt. An inscribed stone was found in Rosetta, a town on the north coast of Egypt, that contained inscriptions in three different languages and scripts, one Greek and two Egyptian.

1700 BC Harappan civilization

Art And Craft

Pottery – making had reached an advanced stage. The pottery of this culture was wheel – made and adorned with a variety of natural, geometric and non – geometric motifs.

Numerous seals have been found from Harappan sites. Most of them are made of terracotta and are square or rectangular in shape. The seals usually have a short inscription accompanied by a religious character or some animal like a tiger, goat or elephant.

Script

Harappan script is the earliest form of writing discovered in India. This script has been engraved on various seals that have been found all over the Indus Valley sites. Harappans had a photographic script. It means it had a picture -like signs showing words and objects. Harappan script has not been deciphered till now. It is written from right to left.

A Large Number Of Cities

During this age, north India was urbanized. A large number of cities such as Kaushambi and Kuushinagar (Uttar Pradesh) and Vaishali (Bihar) developed as centers of trade and commerce. People became rich and prosperous.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)