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Cognitive Psychology Mid-term Study Guide

Updated on September 26, 2014

If something is generalizable to real-world situations, it __________.

Correct Answer: Correct has ecological validity

Memory does NOT involve __________.

Correct Answer: Correct complex decision making

Hermann Ebbinghaus was the first person to systematically study __________.

Correct Answer: Correct memory

How can context influence processing?

Correct Answer: Correct It can guide the flow of cognition.

Which is true of Ebbinghaus?

Correct Answer: Correct He was interested in memory.

The act of taking in information and converting it to a usable mental form is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct encoding

Reductionism is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct attempting to understand a complex event by breaking the event down into its components

Which of the following is NOT an assumption of a strict serial processing approach?

Correct Answer: Correct parallel processing Response Feedback: Good work

Which of the following does NOT challenge a pure behaviorist perspective?

Correct Answer: Correct incorporating Pavlov’s work on classical conditioning

Contralateral connections refer to __________.

Correct Answer: Correct the ways in which one hemisphere of the brain is largely hooked up to the same side of the body

Which of the following is NOT a lobe of the cortex?

Correct Answer: Correct amygdala

The typical size of a synapse is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct 100–200 angstroms

One form of surgical intervention to combat severe epilepsy is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct severing the corpus callosum

How many neural connections exist in each person’s brain?

Correct Answer: Correct trillions

Unmyelinated neurons correspond to __________.

Correct Answer: Correct gray matter

The hippocampus is important for __________.

Correct Answer: Correct memory

Which neuroimaging technique uses x-rays to measure brain structure?

Correct Answer: Correct CT scan

The top layer of the brain, responsible for higher-level mental processes, is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct neocortex

A lightning strike produces visual persistence due to __________.

Correct Answer: Correct the iconic sensory register

Which of the following influences data-driven processing in vision?

Correct Answer: Correct visual texture

Generally, humans can hear frequencies as low as __________.

Correct Answer: Correct 20 cycles per second

What aspect of perception does the Pandemonium model illustrate?

Correct Answer: Correct It is a problem-solving process.

Apperceptive agnosia is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct trouble perceiving patterns

What type of processing is area V1 specialized for?

Correct Answer: Correct feature detection

A limitation of Biederman’s recognition by components (RBC) model is that __________.

Correct Answer: Correct it is strictly data-driven

In sensory memory research, the modality effect is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct Better memory for things heard at the end of a list compared to things seen at the end of a list

The “three-eared man” procedure is most likely to be used to investigate __________.

Correct Answer: Correct what Crowder refers to as “precategorical acoustic storage”

Stroop interference is likely to reflect all but __________.

Correct Answer: Correct extinction

What of the following does NOT capture the nature of a behavior don during an action slip?

Correct Answer: Correct increases with concentration

The attention mechanism that keeps salient but irrelevant information from entering the current stream of thought is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct inhibition

. Question 31 .5 out of 5 points

When talking about attention, the role of inhibition is to __________.

Correct Answer: Correct reduce the influence of salient but irrelevant information

Over time, vigilance at a task that requires sustained attention declines because __________.

Correct Answer: Correct the response bias changes

According to Lavie, the attentional filter is more likely to be guided by physical characteristics when attention is __________ and by semantic characteristics when attention is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct taxed; not taxed

The cocktail party effect refers to __________.

Correct Answer: Correct selection

__________ is the maintenance of attention for infrequent events over long periods of time.

Correct Answer: Correct Vigilance

Another name for the psychological refractory period is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct attentional blink

Information that is stored and processed in the phonological loop is most likely __________.

Correct Answer: Correct in a verbal/acoustic memory code

Short-term memory is also called __________.

Correct Answer: Correct primary memory

Which is NOT true?

Correct Answer: Correct Working memory span is not related to the suppression or inhibition of attention.

Short-term memory span is often correlated with __________.

Correct Answer: Correct intelligence

Baddeley & Hitch (1974) report an experiment in which participants were to perform a reasoning task of various difficulty (“A precedes B” T/F? “B does not precede A” T/F? etc.). In addition to this primary task they were to repeat “the the the,” repeatedly count from 1 to 6, or repeat a set of random digits. Performance was compared against single-task performance.

Correct Answer: Correct The dual-task demands were particularly pronounced when the second task was the random digit task, especially in the negative passive condition.

Rosen & Engle examined high- and low-span people performing an animal name generation task. Which did they demonstrate?

Correct Answer: Correct It is hypothesized that the high-span people’s performance under standard conditions reflects both “normal” retrieval as well as an additional process of guided strategic retrieval.

Serial recall is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct a recall task in which people must recall the list items in their original order of presentation

People with larger working memory spans are more likely to make __________ choices.

Correct Answer: Correct moral

According to Baddeley’s model, working memory is __________.

Correct Answer: Correct a collection of different processes

If an emotional item occurs during the “moment” of an attentional blink, that item will __________.

Correct Answer: Correct be more likely to be identified

The drawing of attention to emotional stimuli is more likely to involve the __________ and a reduction in __________.

Correct Answer: Correct amygdala; conscious control

The emotional Stroop task has NOT been used to study __________.

Correct Answer: Correct dyslexia

If you are afraid of heights, when standing on a balcony looking down, your emotional response will make your estimates of the distance to the ground __________.

Correct Answer: Correct larger than actual

The presence of an emotional target in a visual search display make the detection of that target __________.

Correct Answer: Correct quicker

Response Feedback: Good work

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