ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Common and Contemporary Social Sciences

Updated on November 24, 2013

Cognition is an internal process (mind).

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Developed Psychoanalysis and is referred to as “the father” of it

Theories include 3 Parted Personality

ID: Unconscious, Irresponsible and guided by Pleasure Principle

Pushes the person towards satisfying instincts & desires in an impulsive, animalist & Primitive; most inaccessible

EGO: Conscious, responsible & guided by Reality Principle

Does planning & decision making regulates impulses of the ID to meet demands of reality with logic & judgment to guard the person against harm while allowing some pleasure in the process. Constant struggle between ID & Super Ego to mature.

SUPER EGO: Conscious, judgmental (guilt trip) & guided by Morality Principle

This incorporates parental & social standards of morality. Conscience & ego-ideal are its subparts

Conscience: Reflects actions for which a person has been punished. When standards of the conscience are not met, one is punished internally by guilt. (Awareness)

Unconscious: Holds repressed memories, emotions, & Instinctual drive of ID. Region that is beyond awareness.

Preconscious: Area of mind containing information that can voluntarily be brought to conscience

Ego Ideal: Reflects all the Behavior one’ parents approved of/ rewarded and is a source of goals and aspirating when its standards are met pride is felt.

Believed we are filled with a special kind of “sexual energy” called libido or “Libidinal Energy”. In psychoanalysis it is considered the energy or force for most or all human behavior. Children pass through five stages of development he called psychosexual stages.

Oral (0-1): during this time the child’s greatest satisfaction is obtained from mouth by sucking. People who are denied may compensate later by excessive gum chewing, nail biting, over eating & drinking.

Anal (1-3): Bowel control is achieved and pleasure is focused on function. Attempting to gain approval of parents and may give child form of control over parents with this new function.

Phallic (3-6): Child becomes interest in genitals and sexuality, manipulates and explores genitals and experiences a strong attraction for parent of opposite sex and other is seen as rival & identifies with.

Boy: Oedipus complex Girl: Electra complex

Latency (6-Puberty): Calmness, sexual development kind of on hold, very active but not interested in sex.

Genital (Puberty +): Freud believed that heterosexual feelings and desires awaken here and come about. Ends with heterosexual love & realization of full adult sexuality and on their way to a mature “normal life”.

Erick Erikson (1903-1994)

Erikson was born in Germany and at the age of 25 he moved to Vienna where he studied with Anna Freud. He was a Freudian Ego-Psychologist who agreed with many of his ideas but was more oriented towards the influences of society and culture upon personal development including childhood. He is most famous for work in refining and expanding Freud’s theory of certain stages of a person’s cognitive development. Erikson differed from Freud in his belief that the society in which we live is at least as important as our instinct and motives, our personality and ego is shaped by the conflict between instincts and society and develops through the span of life and that at each stage the person goes through a crisis/ test.

Like many of Freud’s original followers he believed that Freud placed too much emphasis on the impulsive Id and not enough on the Ego and its ability to reason and problem solve. Erikson stayed with this belief that we go through different stages more by relations with others than the libido and instincts for drive.

Jean Piaget (1906-1980)

Piaget was a Swiss zoologist who spent 60 years of his life asking the question, “How do children come to think the way they do?” Observing children in playgrounds he believed that they pass through stages much like others of various forms of development. Intelligence is an individual’s ability to adapt & cope to the environment and to that logic is genetically determined.

Adaptation in two ways

1) Assimilation: taking in both physical (food, drink, & air to make it a part of the individual) and mentally (taking information & perceptions from the world so that they can think for themselves and make patterns of situations). Example of this is that a motorcycle is a bicycle because they have two wheels

2) Accommodation: making adjustments or accepting by physically surviving and mentally, by changing the though process

Assimilation may be more difficult because you are absorbing without changing

He also believed that mental growth comes through linear interactions. Problems appear when one of the two is stronger if you will than the other. One who appeases to a high level will be passive in their adjustment to environment and will be an imitator of others. When a person assimilates too much, they try making perception types and behavior to suit needs rather than adjusting to reality, basically seeing what is wanted to be seen

Piaget’s Development

Sensory Motor: (0-2) Child learns through senses and object permanence (knowing something is there even though it is not seen). At 6 months, no object permanence, at 9 to 1 year a child will search for object he has seen hidden. At 12- 18 months, child will search for his own object and start thinking about it.

Pre-Operational (2-7) Child begins to think symbolically & to use language (intuition rather than logic. Can think about past & anticipate reoccurrence (learning). Egocentric, animistic (inanimate objects have life, imaginary friends too (imagination)) & inability to see others viewpoint. Unable to conserve (objects don’t change when shape or position have) & does not have reversibility (understanding action effecting objects if reversed in sequence will return to same state.

Concrete Operational: (7-11) Conservation & reversibility possible and able to imagine operations & transformations. Now can think logically about real situations, simultaneously becoming less egocentric & can imagine other’s viewpoints.

Formal Operations (11+) Beginning to think abstractly and in hypotheticals, almost adult intellect & concept but lacks experience, wisdom, & judgment. Seeing problems with others logic (especially parents & parents) and losing interests of their views on childhood. Full intellectual ability is attained during this stage and as they get into adolescent they can be inductive & deductive as they learn more in school. Not everyone reaches levels and many think formally instead of abstractly.

Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner (1904 –1990) was an American psychologist, behaviorist, & social philosopher.


1) Reward only the correct and ignore mistakes.

2) Voluntary learning for a reward is called operant conditioning.

1) Terminal Response- Always begin at the end working backwards. Determine what your goal is for experiment, decide significance. Teacher establishes the goal and everything including terminal response must be measurable.

2) Entering Behavior- Examine initial entering behavior

3) Successive approximations towards the goal (shaping outcome). One small step at a time, the step by step is crucial to this method. No living thing can make dramatic changes at once, they need to me coaxed, encouraged and reinforced for every right thing. Penetrating insight is critical to recognize slight steps, most people are unable or unwilling to do this with reinforcement a pleasure or desire outcome delivers a probability that will be repeated to keep reinforcing good behavior.

Anthropology: Who are we? Where did we come from? Why do we behave the way we do?Examines biological & cultural characteristics of all time from particular.

1) Evolution-Biology

2) Social- Politics/Family/Education/Technology/Traditions/Exchange

3) Linguistics–phonological system (phonetics IRA-all sounds & languages- lexicon: vocab/grammar; syntax

4) Archeology/Paleontology-relics aesthetics, reconstruct cultures-----Carbon Dating

Ethno-botanist- can identify food people ate

Stratigraphy sequence- digging grid

Antecedent- before homo-sapiens—genetics

LUCY: Hominid (walks on 2 feet)- Johanson- Australia pothecus- small brain- species aphaeresis


“Bush” “Primitive” “Other” “Theory” of social & cultural evolution

Polygamous- multiple wives

Colonialism is the dark side of capitalism.

(Dogmatic, perhaps) Highest (civilized Patriarchy & monotheism) Matriarchy, Barbarism, to Lowest (primitive & polytheism)

Empiricism: knowing & understanding the world through observation & experience

Induction- particular to general Deduction- from general to particular

Field Work:Long residence, language (sometimes phonetic sounds, participant observation)

Social Darwinism Term from England to apply to social and political forces.

Ethnography-systematic description of particular to formulate universals (complete & detailed)

Ethnology- study of people across time & glove-phenology- comparative analysis- goal is theory

Emile Durkheim- the elementary forms of Religious life of Australian and American Natives- SUICIDE- what is the social and logical aspect? If a person in society experiences a significant degree of belongingness then suicide is unlikely. Work (church political system…, Civil Rights,

General reciprocity- Everyone shares


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.