Developing India Since Independence
Today, India is considered as a developing country or a third world country. Achieving development is a great dream of every nation. So, when analyzing the history of India, it claims a long tradition from ancient time onwards. But in the modern times, from 17th century onwards the background of India changed profoundly. India became one of the colonies of different powers. So, naturally India and its people suffered many burdens. As a part of the colonization the Indian tradition and culture began to experience changes. British were the main rulers of India about two centuries. At last, after the Second World War India got freedom from colonialists. The post World War II and the independence of India were in a bad situation. That was the Indian people were highly suffered the problems of famine, unemployment, lack of necessary facilities etc. Any way Jawaharlal Nehru was a well experienced freedom fighter who became the first Prime Minister of independent India. Along with this the authority of the Indian government was in a busy to solve the problems of the country. As a part of this Jawaharlal Nehru adopted the five-year planning program for the development of the India.
Now, India passed more than 60 years of independence. The progress or the story of Indian development was a bulky one to describe. Here the purpose of this essay is to analyze what are the developmental achievements in Independent India. So, this essay is a study about India after independence with comparing to the period of colonization. For the purpose of simplicity, the entire topic or data can be classified in to four major categories like
I ) Social developments
II) Economical developments
III) Science and technology
IV) Infrastructure developments
I) Social Developments
When we say a country as a developed one, we must consider the social development. Social achievements are the basic tools to measure the development of any country. It consists of different factors like education, health care, lack of gender discrimination, standard of life etc. let us analyze each of the factors separately.
Education is the basic requirement of any society to be a modernized one or to achieve progress in the society. Before the arrival of colonialists, the education system existed in India was not modernized one. The system was entirely traditional one. After the establishment of colonial domination, British introduced the English education in India. Anyway, British authority gave importance for the primary education, but was not much successful. But that was a milestone in the modern educational history of India. After getting independence, the literacy rate of India in 1951 was constrained to 18.33%. It shows that the majority of the people were illiterate. After the country adopted different strategic steps as a part of five-year plans to promote the education in the society. In 2002, India passed an Act, by which every children between 6 to 14 year old must access the free education. Later in 2010, the right to education was listed under fundamental rights. Further there came different programs for the promotion of women education, off campuses etc.
The current literacy rate as per the 2011 census of India reported 73%. Now, there are more than 600 universities and more than 30000 colleges, Medical Colleges, IITs…. functioning in India. But the hundred per cent literacy rate is still remain as a dream. An outstanding development of India in the field of education is the facility of primary school. The primary education is available for each child within 2 Kilo meter distance.
b) Women community
Women community is a unavoidable part of any country. They are in need of better consideration. The condition of women community in India is not favorable one at all levels. So, there are different schemes launched for the women empowerment in India. As mentioned above Indian literacy rate is 73 %. In which women literacy rate is 64.6% while men literacy rate is 80.9 %. It shows the wide gap between women and men community. Further there can be see discrimination in terms of opportunities among men and women.
Even though the condition of women community is increasing there exist few exceptions. Recently many news reports are came out about the attacks on women. Government is also trying to ensure the women safety and stability through different programs. Today women are very actively working in different fields of the country. Governments are arguing for the women reservation in local self governments. But still there exist many issues.
c) Health care
India achieved many benefits from the last 60 years in the health care system. Today, there are many medical colleges, research centers etc are functioning in the country. As a part of this the infant mortality rate declined and the life expectancy of an Indian increased to about 66 years. At the same time there are many problems existing in the medical field. The rural areas of the country are not much enjoying these benefits. For addressing this government is implementing many schemes like NRHM (National Rural Health Mission).
d) People and Family system
The old culture of India gave more importance for group family. But in modern times people are interested in nano families. As an impact of this trend domestic migration is also increasing.
Indian society comprises many different religions. But there existed many unwanted or bad beliefs. Untouchability and caste system are two among them. After getting independence, the government of India banned such social evils legally. Today, the condition of Indian people increased largely compared to the medieval time of India.
The majority of Indian are belongs to rural area. But rapid urbanization became a common phenomenon in India. The impacts of education and industrialization are promoting Indian rural areas to change in to urban cultures and systems.
II) Economic Developments
Economic development is also very significant one in the development of any country. We can consider it as a backbone of the country. In this 21st century Indian economy is one of the most discussing matters among other country even India considering as a developing country. In short, Indian economy has a bright future. But a better proper plan is very vital to develop such a brilliant economy. Mainly Indian economy consist of agriculture, industries etc. Let us analyze each of them separately.
Indian agriculture is very necessary one for the Indian economy since there are many rural areas and rural people depending on agriculture for their livelihood. During the initial stage of colonial rule, Indian villages were attained self sufficiency. But as the impact of commercialization of agriculture more farmers turned to cultivating cash crops instead of food crops. When India became an independent country there existed the problem of food shortage. Then India suffered the same problem till 1990s because Indian economy was in the trap of inflation, famine etc. After the green revolution of 1960s Indian agricultural productivity increased steadily. Today India exports many food items. But the challenges of high poverty rate and hunger are existing. Now, many experts are arguing for a second green revolution in Indian agriculture.
From early time onwards Indian industry was a renounced one. During that time, the industrial set up was entirely traditional. There were many artisans and handicraft products, which attracted the world market. After the colonization, it began to spread the modern industries and the economic set up of India also began to experience changes. Colonialists setup factories across the country.
The industrial sector can be further divided as large scale industries and medium and small scale industries. The large or mega scale industries are functioning mainly in the urban area and the medium and small scale industries are highly concentrated in the rural area of the country. Now, industrial sector became as a vital one and there introduced specialist banks functioning for the development of Indian industry. Today industrial sector is one of the major contributors of the national income and it is also a developing trend in India.
III) Science and Technology
Compared to the early time, India developed many advanced tools in the field of science and technology. India set up ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) in 1969. In 1975 India sent first satellite named Aryabhatta. Then India invented many advanced satellites and research materials. Today Indian achievements in the space technology claims high quality and recognized by all. The space technology of India enables the country to smooth the functions of various fields like communication, scientific research etc.
In the field of nuclear power India achieved many milestones. The initial steps in this field were started in 1958 and now it proved that India can develop more. Further the scientific and technological developments are also present in different fields like medicine, automobiles, electronics, defense research etc.
IV) Infrastructure Facility
We can say good infrastructure is the lifeblood of any country. There must be some basic infrastructure facilities to grow the economic systems. Better infrastructure facilities are assisting the country to reduce the complexity of activities. Anyway, the most important infrastructure facilities are communication and transportation. Let us analyze each of them separately.
Generally the communication tools of Indian people includes Telephones, Mobile phones, Internet etc. the popularity of mobile phone increasing rapidly. India host second place in terms of Telephone network. The internet facilities are also spreading very vastly in to the rural area of the country.
Rail and road transportation are the common form of movement of people. Indian road network is the second largest one in the world and railway network is the second largest in Asia. Both of them are also using for the purpose of domestic trades. Sea transportation is also significant one, because India is a sub-continent. There are about 200 small and large ports. These facilities are highly supporting the international trade. Air transportation is also functioning in India. Airports are located at cities of different parts of India. This is also supporting the tourism sector and international trade etc.
In conclusion India is still progressing at different levels.