- Education and Science»
- Astronomy & Space Exploration
Did God Create the Universe or Did the Universe evolve?
Peter Higgs (photo by BBC news. Internet. Dec. 12,2013)
How to explain the universe
Let’s tackle the question “Did god create the universe or did the universe evolve?
There are actually two questions here. One: “Did god create the universe?” Two: “Did the universe evolve?
How to deal with these questions? I will use the framework of science.
I know the religious will object to the use of a scientific concept. The reason is that religion and science are opposites. That is, religion denies science; science denies religion. We will not go deeper into the position of either science or religion in this disagreement.
I admit it is my bias to use the framework of science in dealing with the two questions. Bertrand Russell in his book “Wisdom of the West” said that it is better to admit one’s bias and be consistent with it rather than pretend to be objective for all sides.
Hypothesis to theory
Let’s proceed. Let’s make one hypothesis for each of the questions.
“God created the universe” is a hypothesis for “Did god create the universe?”
“Higgs boson evolved into the universe" is a hypothesis for “Did the universe evolve?”
To recall, a hypothesis is a scientific guess for use in conducting experiments or theory-making. A hypothesis consists of concepts and relationship or relationships among concepts, according to Albert Einstein (Ideas and Opinions. 1954).
In “Higgs boson evolved into the universe” the concepts are "Higgs boson" and “universe.”
The relationship between these concepts is “evolved”
Let’s grant that we know what is meant by “universe.” A Higgs boson is a negative charge. Higgs boson acquires mass when exposed to space. That explains how the earth, other planets, sun and other stars came about.
"Higgs was at Edinburgh University when he came up with the theory. The mechanism he helped devise predicts a particle - the Higgs boson - which was finally discovered in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider on the French-Swiss border" (Peter Higgs receives Nobel Prize medal. BBC. Internet. Dec. 11,2013). Higgs and Francois Englert.are co-winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013.
Higgs boson takes us farther back to the origin of the universe that is believed to have started with the Big Bang. In one theory, the element that exploded in the Big Bang started with hydrogen. A Higgs boson acquired mass that could have been hydrogen.
The formula of the Big Bang is H + D → 3He + γ. A proton of hydrogen and a proton of deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen) combined to produce helium and gamma rays. Helium is also an isotope of hydrogen. The debris of the explosion produced other elements.
You can find more details in my Hub, “Big Bang theory, origin of the universe: what is the mystery?”
The idea of evolution was first elaborated by Charles Darwin. For example, man/woman originated from apes, one fossil is called Cro Magnon. The concept of evoluton has been taught in school that it hardly needs further clarification. Some people say it is expressed in “survival of the fittest.” In genetics, the evidence is shown by mass selection.
What we are saying is that the concept “universe” is verifiable. It is not fiction. “Higgs boson” is also verifiable. It is not a physical fiction.
Since the concepts (universe, Higgs boson) and their relationship (evolve) are verifiable and had been verified, the hypothesis “Higgs boson evolved into the universe” had been verified.
Therefore, “Higgs boson evolved into the universe” graduates into a theory.
The experts, including the physicists, can scrutinize this theory. That is assuming that they are adept at theory making. There are scientist who think they are making theory when in fact what they have is “anything that can be thought of.” Einstein and Paul Dirac had shown theory making having been nuclear physics theoreticians. Dirac predicted the existence of positrons that Anderson in fact verified. Positron is now in use in PET, positron emission tomography, a protocol in the diagnosis of disease.
Explaining the assumption
There is one question related to this theory “Higgs boson evolved into the universe.” Let’s call it CDH theory for short; this name is arbitrary. It should be clarified that this question is outside CDH theory itself. Russell said that a theory explains until it needs explanation (Russell, B. Wisdom of the West:377).
One question is: who put Higgs boson there? Alright, that Higgs boson exists is true. Now, the presence of Higgs boson has been used as an assumption. We are now turning to this assumption; how to explain it.
We are trying to follow the method of Einstein in theory making. In generalized theory of relativity he used the Lorentz transformation as an assumption. Another assumption he used was the speed of light measured earlier by Michelson and Morley. Briefly, Lorentz transformation says that the laws of nature in one coordinating system, like a galaxy, are the same as in another coordinating system. This has been proven by way of deductive logic. It has not been proven by way of experiment because no person or instrument has gone to another galaxy to verify it. However, the generalized theory of relativity works, in the framework of pragmatism. For example, it says that an astronaut if he wants to get back to earth after a space flight must angle his reentry tragectory by 6.2 degrees with respect to the equator. If the astronaut used another angle, he would be forever bouncing back to space.
Our question regarding Higgs boson is similar to our question about Lorentz transformation. Only, the latter is easier to tackle because we have all the powerful Hubble telescopes mounted on satellites.
I do not have knowledge of who put Higgs boson there.
However, it does not mean that CDH hypothesis is disqualified to graduate into a theory. In the same way that the generalized theory of relativity holds despite lack of explanation of Lorentz transformation the CDH theory likewise holds.
Let’s turn now to the hypothesis “God created the universe.” The concepts are “god” and “universe.” The relationship is “created.” There are several definitions of god but I cannot vouch that these definitions are verifiable. Definitions of universe are verifiable. I cannot vouch that “created” is verifiable either. The main reason is that I would be using the framework of science. And the religious will say that I am biased.
However, there is one question about the theory of creation similar to our question about Lorentz transformation and presence of Higgs boson.
Who made god? That is a question that was also asked by Bertrand Russell (a British philosopher and mathematician, winner of Nobel Prize in Literature). He did not find any answer. That could be the reason why he wrote a book “Why I am not a Christian.”
Well, the religious have plenty to say about creation of the universe.