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Types of Arches
Flat Arch/ Jack Arch/Straight Arch/Straight Gauged Arch
French Arch/Dutch Arch/ Slanted Arch/ Skewback Arch.
Horseshoe Arch/ Moorish arch/ Keyhole arch
Basket-Handle Arch/Elliptical Arch
Trefoil Arch/ three-foiled cusped arch
Tudor Arch/ Four-centered Arch/Depressed Arch
Relieving arch/Discharging arch
Inflexed Arch/ Flamboyant Arch
Ogee Arch/Contrasted Arch; Keel Arch
Scalloped arch/Multifoil arch
A jack arch is a structural element in masonry construction that provides support at openings in the masonry. Alternate names are "flat arch" and "straight arch".
A straight arch along the springing line with a flat Intrados. The masonry units are laid out as voussoirs angled to a centre below the arch.
A flat arch that uses parallel sided voussoirs.
triangular arch. Two flat stones set at an angle of 45° or thereabouts, mitred at the top, and touching each other at the apex of a triangular-headed opening. It occurs in Anglo-Saxon architecture and is not an arch at all. An arch often formed by two large diagonal stones that mutually support each other to span an opening; also called a miterarch., Mayan Arch
An arch in which the curve is a less than semicircular segment of a circle.
Round / Roman Arch
A Semicircular Arch
The horseshoe arch, also called the Moorish arch and the Keyhole arch, is the emblematic arch of Islamic architecture. Horseshoe arches can take rounded, pointed or lobed form.
Many Gothic openings are based upon the equilateral form. In other words, when the arch is drafted, the radius is exactly the width of the opening and the centre of each arch coincides with the point from which the opposite arch springs. This makes the arch higher in relation to its width than a semi-circular arch which is exactly half as high as it is wide.
An arch of 3 centres. In the simplest model, the outer centres lie on the springing line, and describe equilateral triangles. The radii of the middle arc bisect the springing line at these two outer centres (M and Q) – thus the depth of the middle centre
An arch whose support is higher on one side than on the other
A round arch resting on corbels
A trefoil arch -- or three-foiled cusped arch -- is an arch incorporating the shape or outline of a trefoil — three overlapping rings. It has been widely used for its symbolic significance in Christian architecture.
An arch that takes the form of an inverted catenary, i.e., the curve formed by a flexible cord hung between the two points of support.
Drop arch/ Surbased arch.
a pointed arch having radii of length less than the span.
Also called surbased arch. an arch having a rise of less than half its span.
blunt pointed arch drawn from two centers within the span
The simplest shape is the long opening with a pointed arch known in England as the lancet. Lancet openings are often grouped, usually as a cluster of three or five. Lancet openings may be very narrow and steeply pointed. Lancet arches are typically defined as two-centered arches whose radii are larger than the arch's span.
a four-centered arch, the inner pair of curves having a radius much greater than that of the outer pair.
A blind arch is an arch found in the wall of a building which has been infilled with solid construction so it cannot serve as a passageway, door, or window.The term is most often associated with masonry wall construction, but is also found (or simulated) in other types of construction such as light frame construction. Some blind arches were originally built as open arches and infilled at a later date. Others were originally built with solid infill as intentional stylistic elements.
A discharging arch or relieving arch is an arch built over a lintel or architrave to take off the super incumbent weight. The earliest example is found in the Great Pyramid, over the lintels of the entrance passage to the tomb: it consisted of two stones only, resting one against the other. The same object was attained in the Lion Gate and theTomb of Agamemnon, both in Mycenae, and in other examples in Greece, where the stones laid in horizontal courses, one projecting over the other, left a triangular hollow space above the lintel of the door, which was subsequently filled in by vertical sculptured stone panels.
The Flamboyant Arch is one that is drafted from four points, the upper part of each main arc turning upwards into a smaller arc and meeting at a sharp, flame-like point. These arches create a rich and lively effect when used for window tracery and surface decoration. The form is structurally weak and has very rarely been used for large openings except when contained within a larger and more stable arch. It is not employed at all for vaulting.
The Depressed or four-centered arch is much wider than its height and gives the visual effect of having been flattened under pressure. Its structure is achieved by drafting two arcs which rise steeply from each springing point on a small radius and then turn into two arches with a wide radius and much lower springing point.
A fiveIobed pattern divided by cusps; a cusped arch with five foliations worked into the intrados; a cinque-foil tracery at the apex of a window.
Scalloped arch/Multifoil arch
An arch having more than five foils, a design found in Moorish architecture.
The "Norman arch" is the round arch. Norman mouldings are carved or incised with geometric ornament, such aschevron patterns, frequently termed "zig-zag mouldings", around arches.
A semicircular arch having its extrados struck from a higher point than its intrados so that the length of the voussoirs is longer nearer the top of the arch.
The Venetian brick arch is a specific example of a three centred arch. Also known as a Queen Anne arch it is a classic design but structurally weak.
An arch having its extrados struck from a centre further from the central axis than its intrados so that the length of the voussoirs is longer nearer the top of the arch. Frequent in Florentine palace architecture, such as the 13th centuryPalazzo Mozzi. Occasionally, an ogee point at the apex is also found.
Where the Intrados is semi-circular and the Extrados is pointed this is sometimes referred to as a 'Venetian Gothic Arch'
A specific acute, 2-centered arch. The arc length is 5/4 of the span of the arch with the centres exterior to the span
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Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved