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The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt

Updated on October 1, 2016


Tutankhamun's death mask by Carsten Franzi CC BY-SA 2.0
Tutankhamun's death mask by Carsten Franzi CC BY-SA 2.0 | Source


King Tutankhamun is known as King Tut. King Tut had a short reign as Pharaoh. He only ruled for nine years. King Tut was one of Egypt's most famous Pharaohs.

When King Tut was nine years old, he became Pharaoh. King Tut died when he was in his teens. The Egyptians did not have time to build a large tomb for him. The built King Tut a small tomb. His tomb was small, and the grave was not found until several thousand years after his death.

Wooden bust of boy king, found in tomb. By Joh Bodsworth
Wooden bust of boy king, found in tomb. By Joh Bodsworth | Source

Archaeologists found King Tut's tomb in 1922. On the floor, they found a bag of gold rings. King Tut has a solid gold mask on his face. His tomb had many treasures in it, and they did not seem to be disturbed,

When King Tut's tomb was found, ancient Egypt became famous. They made movies about it. Jewelry was designed like the ancient Egypt jewelry. There were also clothes designed in ancient Egyptian designs.


Head of Statuette By captmondo CC BY-SA 3.0
Head of Statuette By captmondo CC BY-SA 3.0 | Source


The Pharaoh Khufu was also called Cheops. He was Pharaoh of Egypt during the 4th Dynasty from 2551 to 2525BC. During this period, he was the second Pharaoh, and he reigned for 23 years. It is believed the society was very structured under his rule. It is also believed Khufu became very rich.

There is not much known about Khufu's personal life or what he accomplished as Pharaoh. His best-known accomplishment was the Great Pyramid of Egypt.

There are two points of view that surround the building of his pyramid. The first that some experts believe is that the pyramid was built by slaves who were forced to work hard until the pyramid was finished. The other idea that some experts believe is that the pyramid was built by hundreds of workers. They lived near the pyramid, and they were paid a wage until the pyramid was finished.

Pharaoh Khufu organized the building of the pyramid. There is not much known about Pharaoh Khufu's life because his tomb was robbed. His mummy has never been found.

Ahmose I

Ahmose I By Ahmosel CC BY-SA 2.5
Ahmose I By Ahmosel CC BY-SA 2.5 | Source

Ahmose I

The eighteenth dynasty was started by Ahmose I. He was a member of the Theban royal family. His brother was Pharaoh for three years, then he died. Ahmose I was ten years old when he became Pharaoh in 1550BC, and he ruled for 25 years.

All during his fathers and brothers rule the Theban kings were at war with the Hyksos. They were powerful in the Nile Delta.

Ahmose I was only ten years old when he became Pharaoh, so his mother ruled as his regent until he became old enough to rule. She brought the power of Thebes together.

Ahmose I went on the defensive when he started to rule Egypt. He made the borders stronger. He isolated Avaris, which was the Hyksos's capital. Ahmose I tried to conquer the Hyksos 4 times in 3 years before he succeeded. He conquered the Hyksos during his 19th year of rule.

When Ahmose defeated, the Hyksos it started the New Kingdom when Egypt was the most powerful Lower and Upper Egypt were united again and Ahmose I and later Pharaohs supported art and monuments. They also did glass blowing.

Ahmose I made Thebes the capital of Egypt again. It had been the capital in the Middle Kingdom. Thebes was in the middle of the kingdom. This was important because the Hyksos were in the north and in the south you had the Nubians.

Ahmose I pyramid was built in what is now Abydos. His was the last mortuary complex pyramid built.

Ahmose I is considered on of Egypt’s great Pharaohs. He is credited with uniting Egypt and restoring it to the way of the Old Kingdom. He also had great temples built.

Amenhotep III

Colossal statue of Amenhotep III By A Parrot Public Domain
Colossal statue of Amenhotep III By A Parrot Public Domain | Source

Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III was the 9th Pharaoh that ruled during the 18th dynasty. He did a lot for Egypt. He was Artematin's father. There were abundance and peace during his reign. There are structures still standing that were built during Amenhotep III's reign.

It is said that Amenhotep III is to have been the Pharaoh who beautified Egypt.

Amenhotep III's mother was Queen Mutemwiya, and his father was pharaoh Thutonose IV. Amenhotep III became Pharaoh when he was 12 years old, and he stayed Pharaoh until he was 50 years old.

Amenhotep III had several wives, and some say there were at least 317 of them. All of his wives were acquired through dowries. They were all will taken care of. Queen Tiy was Amenhotep III favorite wife. Amenhotep III built and dedicated a temple to her. They were the parents of Amenhotep IV.

Amenhotep III was a Pharaoh when Egypt was not in any danger of being attacked by her enemies. Trading and production and life along the Nile were great. Egypt was very prosperous during his reign. Much building was done during his reign. He made many of the cities larger and built many temples. He built the Maikate temple that was on the western shores of Thebes. The most famous temple he built was the Temple of Amun. The temple is now in ruins but is still a popular tourist attraction.

Amenhotep III was the pharaoh for 39 years. He died when he was 50 yeas old. He was not known for conquering, but he had many monuments, temples and large statues built.

The Valley of the Kings is where his tomb was located. When his tomb was found, it had been stripped of all items. It is believed Amenhotep III's mummy was found in a royal cache.

It is believed it was hidden by the priests. It was found in a cut tomb that was located near Deir El Bahri, Hatshepsut's Temple.


Menes By My shotos Public Domain
Menes By My shotos Public Domain | Source


There is a great mystery that surrounds King Menes of Egypt. It is believed by many he was Egyhts first pharaoh of the Dynasty I period. It is believed King Menes ruled somewhere between 3000 to 3100BC. It is believed he ruled Egypt for 60 years.

It is believed King Menes united Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. He was the Pharaoh of both kingdoms.

Some believed Menes was the first human ruler of Egypt. It is said he inherited the throne and crown of Egypt from Horus who was the falcon-headed god.

In Ancient Egypt religion, Horus was a very powerful god. It is thought he was one of Egypt’s oldest gods.

King Menes s family is also shrouded in mystery. It is believed he was able to unite upper and lower Egypt by marrying into a royal family from the south. King Menes told everyone Horus gave him the kingship.

King Menes built the city of Memphis. He first built the city on a site known as the White Wall, which was in the Middle of the White Kingdom. The Upper Kingdom was also called the White Kingdom.

The city of Memphis was built on the Nile's flood plain. He had to build a huge dam to divert the annual flood water away from the city.

He taught his subjects many things. He had them cover their tables and sofas with gorgeous cloths. He introduced the finer points of life to the residents of Memphis.

The temple of Ptah was built by Menes. Atum was created by Ptah.

King Menes soon has a surplus of food so he started trading food to other countries in the Mediterranean. This made Memphis very prosperous.

Ramese II

Ramses II in Abu Simbel By Hajor CC BY-SA 3.0
Ramses II in Abu Simbel By Hajor CC BY-SA 3.0 | Source

Ramses II

During the 19th dynasty, Ramses II was a Pharaoh of Egypt. He was one of Ancient Egypt’s greatest pharaohs. He was sometimes called “Ramses the Great” because of all of his accomplishments. His reign over Egypt is supposed to have lasted from 1279 to 1213BC. Ramses II was the son of a Pharaoh, and when his father died, he became pharaoh.

Ramses II was a great builder and warrior. He was also a great family and religious man. He seemed to excel in everything he did. He built many temples that are still standing. The hieroglyphics in the temples document the various things he did during his lifetime.

Ramses II built many great monuments that are still standing. He ruled a large territory during a time of a lot of political unrest.

It is said Ramses II had over 100 children and many wives. His favorite wife was Nefertari. He lived longer that at least 12 of his sons and many of his wives.


Snefru's Bent Pyramid By Ivrienen GNU 1.2
Snefru's Bent Pyramid By Ivrienen GNU 1.2 | Source


The first king of the 4th dynasty was Snefru. He ruled from 2613 to 2589BC. He gained his kingship through marriage and not birthright. He was a very good military man, and he advanced Egypt’s economy and he established trade routes along the Mediterranean.

He is most famous for constructing the Bent Pyramid of Dahshur.

Snefru was married to Helepheres and it is believed she was his half sister. It is thought Snefru was born from one of the wives in his father's harem which meant he was not of royal blood. This may be why he married his half sister. Snefru and Helepheres were Khufu's parents. Snefru's mother was Meresankh and Huni was his stepfather.

Snefru was a very active Pharaoh. He was active in many things. He got materials from the Mediterranean, which included cedar that he used to build ships. Most of the cedar came from Lebanon. His military skills were very good. He did battle against the Libyans and Nubians. He defeated Nubia, and it gained him raw material for construction of his many projects.

Snefru was very intelligent. He built three pyramids during his reign. Snefru was like other pharaohs in that death was a large part of life. Snefru built a pyramid in Maidum, which started out as a 7 step pyramid. After the pyramid was finished the steps were filled in, and it became a true pyramid

Snefru constructed the Bent Pyramid in Dahshur. Snefru will probably always be known as a prominent pyramid builder during his time.


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