- Education and Science
Elements of Management by Objective
Illustration of Management by Objective: A picture
What are elements? Elements are components that makeup any material, product, or establishment. Based on this topic, elements of Management by objective are the components that make up management by objective. For every product that exists in the world, there are components that make it. Taking television as an example, some of the components or elements are capacitors, screen, glass, tube, and buttons, audio, frame and so on.
This topic is designed to educate you on the elements that make up Management by Objective. Before explanation of these elements, we will first give clear definition of Management by Objective.
What is management by Objective (MBO)? Management by objective is defined as a process whereby both the superior and the helping workers in an organization jointly make plans by identifying common goal and defining each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of the organization. It is a planning method which refers to the systematic setting of targets for each employee of an organization. It is a means through which the abilities of all employees are utilized by working hard to achieve the already set goals of any organizations. The goals in this context are established by both the management and the subordinates. Management by objective can be sensed as the process through which managers and the co-workers participate together in establishing goals, activities and target dates as well as the evaluation of performance as it relates to the established objective. As some students work with reading groups so that they can set-up good academic records, so do managers work with the employees to achieve the organizational goals. A scholar, Mali, defined management by objective as a strategy of planning and getting results in a direction that management wishes to take while meeting the goals and needs of its participants.
The Elements of Management by Objective
As defined before, elements are things which are composed in a particular object or material. In the same way, management by objective has been defined in the introductory part of this write-up. The elements of management by objective are objectives, time strategy, total management, and individual motivation.
Objectives: These are events or accomplishment planned and expected to happen. Objectives are things that are mapped out by organizations which they work to accomplish in a year or within a particular period of time. Examples of objective includes achieve four distinctions in an academic semester, and making first class in a particular course of study.
If a student planned to achieve four distinctions in an academic semester that is an objective he set for himself. What he has to do is to work hard to make it real. He can speed his way of studying to see that the objective he set comes to accomplishment. Again, he can meet the intelligent ones in his class or department all in the name of meeting up with the objective of his. Another possible thing he can do to see that the objective is not made porous is by asking questions in the classroom or lecture halls on any topic he does not understand.
When an organization wants to buy vehicles for conveying of their workers after and before every work, it is an objective. Again, when banks which have insufficient security men planned to employ more to secure their property and is included in their year plan, it is a typical example of organizational objective. They planned to adopt this so that they will limit the level of risk they may run into in the course of running the organization.
In management by objective, to achieve the objective set by an organization, all and sundry must work together. The head must work as the head and the tail works as the tail. The objective of the organization cannot be accomplished when all the duties to be performed by all is left only for the head. During the definition of management by objective, a part of the definition said that it is systematic setting of targets for each employee in an organization. So, since the targets have been set, all the employees have to work together to achieve the goals or the objective. The manager does his best and the employees put in their own efforts too.
Some managements all over the world have problem of strategic time management.Time can be defined as anything measured in minutes, hours and days. The word, strategy, is the process of carrying out a plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose. It is the methods that are applied to fulfil the objectives of an individual or organization. Time strategy refers to the schedule for blending the activities and operations of each manager to achieve long and short-range sets of results. It is a deliberate co-ordination of resources with the calendar, signalling each manager to propose, act, and accomplish at designated period of time.
Time strategy is not just a strategy. It is a strategy that goes with time. For instance, if an organization wants to achieve a particular function, this has to go with time. Taking the organization to be a Secondary School that has many teachers working in it, if the school wants to complete the students result, it has to go with time. The manager and the teachers of the school have to initiate strategies that will make them to compute the students’ results and present them to the students at the appointed day and time. If time strategy is not welcomed, the reverse may be the case. The capacities of both the management and the subordinates are needed to achieve the result as stated in Management by Objective. This is one of the important elements of management by Objective as every good organization need to work with time plus strategy to achieve their desired result with less stress.
Total Management: This is formalized effort to involve and co-ordinate the contribution of each manager towards a common goal. Management is the process of planning, organising, directing and controlling the activities of any organization to achieve a common goal. This is an important aspect of management. Total management as an element of Management by Objective is about taking total care of any organization to see that things are done the way they are supposed. The manager of the organization is to organise the organization he cares for so that quality
servicesis paid to people.
In educational institution for instance, the internal management must ensure total care to see that the goals of the organization is achieved. The manager has to properly take care of some departments in that establishment. His eyes are to oversee the academic department, security department, lecture halls, admission department, bursary department and others. In management by objective, the efforts of both the manager and the subordinates are needed. So to achieve this, the manager has to select or elect other helpers who will help him to take care of the other individual departments. These “small heads” (those working in other departments) are the ones to give him report on what goes on in their department. If there is anything needed to upgrade the quality of services rendered in those departments, it is the duty of the subordinates to report to the main head.
Individual Motivation: This is personal involvement in the objective-setting process. It tends to generate the desire and willingness to achieve the organization’s objectives. Management by objective is a
motivationalstrategy. This strategy is what determines the level of output that any organization can achieve in their activity. Motivation is the desire to do something. Hence, personal motivation is the desire or the zeal to do personal works in various departments any worker is placed.
In management by objective, the objectives of any organization are set by both the manager and the workers or subordinates. In the same way, in other to achieve the objectives, all workers and the manager of the organization work as a team to achieve profitable results. This element entails that it is not the sole duty of the manager to motivate the employee; rather the motivation is for everybody. The manager can motivate the employees and the employees can motivate the manager also. It is different from the case whereby it is meant only for the manager to motivate the employees. When anyone does not motivate the worker, the worker should find it as his or her duty to motivate him or herself.
Management by objective is an important topic in the educational departments where it applies as well as in related. But this topic discussed the important elements or compositions of Management by objective. These elements were explained with possible instances for easy comprehension of the topic. Finally, the elements of management by objective as entailed are objectives, time strategy, total management, and individual motivation.
Management and Organizations by Harison E. F
How to Manage by Objectives, New York, by John Wiley
Dimensions of Educational Planning and Economics of Education by Dr. H. O. N. Bosah and Dr. G. O. Eneasator