- Education and Science
Every Word Tells a Story 11 - Ketchup, Kelpie and Kabuki
It's been a while, dear reader, since our last trip down the alphabet lane. We discovered the mysteries of Jade, quaffed a Jeroboam and danced the Jitterbug in our last journey. It is only a matter of time, then, that we arrive at our next stop, the curious K.
The eleventh letter of the alphabet has been driven to near extinction after other pretenders tried to take its mantle ( stand up, you cowardly 'C' and the questionable 'Q'!) It originated in the hieroglyphs via the semitic alphabet and eventually arrived in Greek as 'Kappa'.
Apparently the original hieroglyph represented the 'open hand'. The Semites then took it to represent the sound K, as their word for hand began with that sound.
In many languages, 'c' and 'q' have taken over the 'k' sound. In English that we continue to use 'k' side by side with the hard 'c' and the curious 'q'.
I like the letter K. But then you would too if your surname started with it!
Lets see what curious stories 'K' words deliver unto us.
The start of a series... A, B & C
In this journey, we shall sample the delights of Ketchup, shiver at the eerie Kelpie, marvel at the Japanese art of Kabuki and the visual delights of a Kaleidoscope. We shall ponder on the curiosity of Kleptomania and shudder at the superstition of King's Evil.
D, E & F
Little did I know that the All- American favorite and the worldwide household darling, the tomato ketchup gets its name from a Chinese pickled fish sauce.
Back in the 17th century, the Amoy district of China made a distinctive fish sauce that was the brine of pickled fish or shellfish. The Amoy name for such a sauce was kôe-chiap or kê-chiap. This tangy table sauce made its way to the Malay Peninsula via the chinese immigrants in the 18th century and was discovered by the adventurous British explorers.
The Malay word for the sauce was kĕchap. From this came the English Ketchup and its alternative Catsup.
Throughout the 18th century the Term Ketchup or Catsup meant varieties of table sauces made from various ingredients such as fish, walnuts, mushrooms and many others.
It was only in the early 19th century ( 1801) that the first recipes of Tomato Ketchup originated in America.
As the Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum) belongs to the deadly nightshade family, American's were understandably reluctant to use fresh tomatoes in their cookery as they considered that it may be poisonous.
Strangely though, the acceptance of Tomato Ketchup led to the eventual acceptance of fresh tomatoes into the diet. A rare case of a processed food leading to the acceptance of its fresh ingredient!
The famous Heinz Co. launched their Tomato Ketchup in 1876 and started their world domination of the market. Today over 60% of the tomato Ketchup consumed by the world is made by Heinz.
The Tap, Shake and Squeeze
Many a scientific paper has been written on the best way to get the ketchup out of the bottle. If you want to impress ( or bore to death) an unsuspecting fellow diner, here's the science behind the flow of Ketchup.
Tomato Ketchup shares its structure and viscosity with certain other liquids such as lava, blood, nail varnish and paint. These liquids share a property called pseudoplasticity.
Also known as 'shear thinning' this property means that when a shearing force is applied to the the liquid in question it starts to thin out and flow better. When the force is stopped it returns to a more viscous and less mobile state.
So whether you shake, squeeze or tap, what you're doing is applying sheer stress to a 'pseudoplastic' liquid. Now you have the license to geek out at dinner and impress others ( or you may be the recipient of shear force yourself!)
The eerily sinister Kelpie is the name of a mythological creature in Celtic folklore. Kelpies are often portrayed in Scotland as a 'water horse'. Usually mimicking a lost pony, the telltale sign of a constantly dripping mane wrapped in weed and bullrushes should give it away.
Sporting a greenish black hide, Kelpies can mimic innocent horses and lure children to ride them. Once you straddle them their skin turns adhesive and they drag the victim with them under water never to be seen again.
In other versions, Kelpies can turn into beautiful water nymphs and lure sailors along the riverbanks. The lore of the Kelpie is shared all over Celtic and Nordic region.
Other names for the Kelpie
Isle of Man
The word Kabuki ( 歌舞伎) in Japanese Kanji characters literally means 'sing' 'dance' and 'skill'. what an elegant way to describe an artform.
The Classical form of Japanese Dance-Drama, Kabuki, originated in the 17th century during the Edo period. Izumo No Okuni, a shrine maiden ( Miko) is attributed to its origins. Female performers played the male and female roles during the origins.
Kabuki dance form told stories of historical and mythological nature and simplified it to the common folk. In this manner, it became a popular, ribald and often riotous entertainment. As the female performers in these entertainment troupes were also often available for prostitution during those times, these performances attracted a diverse crowd of social classes.
The ruling shoguns felt these ribald entertainments were a disgrace to society and banned women from performing. This lead to all male troupes performing male and female roles - a tradition that has lasted till modern day.
Steeped in centuries old tradition, Kabuki today remains the most popular form of Japanese dance-drama enjoyed by many in Japan and internationally.
Many of the traditions have endured years of transformation and modernisation. Unlike other forms of entertainments Kabuki used to be ( and still is in some circles) a whole day entertainment where the audiences are invited to experience and escape into the fantasy/ history of the subject matter for the day.
A theatre district running Kabuki in olden days sustained a whole industry around it- the restaurants selling wonderful food, the souvenir makers, the costumes and clothes of the performance and many more.
Today the performers enjoy national iconic status and many famous Japanese Kabuki actors enjoy popularity in film and television.
A Kabuki Glossary
Sing- Dance- Skill
Kabuki unique make up
the base palette
Walkway into Audience
'playing to the gallery'
ascending or descending
'Riding in midair'
The Greek word 'Kalos' meaning beauty crops up in many English words but is usually spelt with the hard C. We have previously encountered this in the 'C' chapter as Calligraphy ( beautiful writing) Calisthenics ( beautiful shapes) and Calliphygean ( a beautiful bum!).
The word Kaleidoscope is given to the contraption that creates magical shapes and forms using colourful beads inside a reflective mirror surface.
Kaleidoscopes were first created by Sir David Brewster, a Scottish polymath who was a mathematician, physicist, inventor and writer. Among his many contributions in the field of Optics, Brewster first invented the Kaleidoscope while studying diffraction of light.
The simple device was made of three rectangular mirrors mounted inside a cylinder filled with glass beads. One end allows light and the other represents the viewing glass. Brewster set out to study light polarisation. The beautiful images created by multiple internal reflection dazzled him enough to set about patenting and marketing this as a toy.
The ideal angle of placing these reflective surfaces is 60°.
In its first three months of production, the Kaleidoscope sold over two hundred thousand pieces in London and Paris.
Brewster, sadly, failed to make his big fortune due to a fault in his original patent application, allowing competitors to flood the market.
Unlike thieving for financial gain, Kleptomania ( Greek Klepto - to steal, mania - obsessive desire) is described as an impulse control disorder where the afflicted get increasing pressure to act, experience an adrenaline rush when the act is underway and experience a 'release' when it is complete.
Kleptomania is also described as the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal, even though items are not needed for personal use or for their monetary value.
Afflicted persons may also suffer from Obsessive compulsive Disorder, Anxiety, Depression and other Mood disorders that are linked to this.
Kleptomania has perhaps become a popular defence for those who get caught in the act, when in reality only 5% of thefts are due to Kleptomania.
Psychotherapy and counselling were used primarily for treatment, but of late SSRI antidepressant drugs such as Fluoxetine ( Prozac) , Citalopram ( Cipramil, Celexa) and Sertraline ( Zoloft, Lustral) have been very effective in treatment.
QUIZ: Do you know your Manias?
QUIZ: Do you know your Manias?view quiz statistics
G,H, I & J
Scrofula is a disease of the lymph nodes of the neck. It usually starts as a painless lump and then gradually swells and becomes an abscess without any signs od redness or inflammation ( hence called a 'cold abscess')
Thankfully rare due to the steady decrease of tuberculosis throughout the world in the 20th century. However, due to the rise in AIDS a small proportion of cases have started reappearing in immunocompromised individuals.
It is caused by the same bacteria that causes Tuberculosis ( Mycobacterium Tuberculosis) although other atypical bacteria can cause it too.
In Medieval times, scrofula was believed to be cured by the 'Royal Touch' of the Sovereign of England or France due to their divine right. For this reason the disease was known as 'Kings Evil'.
From the 17th century the book of common prayer even had a special ceremony written in whereby the King or Queen would ceremonially touch the afflicted and hand over a gold coin to the sufferer. The practice continued well into the 18th century in England until King George I put an end to it. Similarly in France it continued well into the 18th century.
© 2013 Mohan Kumar