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What Are The Human Body Systems?
Our body is composed of cells that make tissues to organs to systems and to organisms. Our organs give great contributions to our body. They make us alive and be more free and comfortable as we go along with the environment. In this chapter there are three human body systems that been tackled and give substantial explanations and clarifications, these are: reproductive system, respiratory system and the urinary system.
It is a system that helps human to reproduce another human being. It starts the life of humans. When you are in an adolescence period/stage you are at the time of puberty, which is part of development when you are physically able to reproduce. Moreover, male and female has their own reproductive system that has its specialized role in reproduction.
Male reproductive system
- Testes - organ in males that produces sperm.
- Scrotum- it supports the testes in place.
- Epididymis- it is found at the top of each testis where sperms are started.
- Urethra- a tube which is an opening for sperm and urine passage.
- Vas deferens- it is an excretory duct of the testes.
- Penis- it is an external genital organ of a male.
The testes produce billions of sperm cells during puberty. Sperm is a male reproductive cell that has a head and tail. Its tail makes the sperm moves faster. That sperm travels through the tubes circling the bladder called the vas deferens. Behind is the seminal vesicle that provides the sperm with a fluid that enables them to move. And the mixture of the sperm and the fluid called as the semen that leaves the body via the urethra. A muscle at the back of the bladder wherein it serves as the receptacle of a fluid like urine, which contact during ejaculation to avoid urine entering the urethra thus semen and urine does not mix.
Female reproductive system
- Ovaries- the sex cells of the female
- Fallopian tubes- this is where fertilization takes place
- Cervix- this is the neck of the uterus
- Vagina- this is the birth canal
For the female sex organs, egg starts to develop in the ovaries during puberty stage. The ovary is about the shape and size of a pile nut. From the ovary, egg or ovum releases once a month. Every month each ovary sets free an egg and so on. The egg released enters the Fallopian tube or oviduct. The cilium which is the hair like structures found in the Fallopian tube sweep the fertilized egg to the uterus to develop. A baby to be born passes through the vagina.
How to Keep the Reproductive Organs Healthy
- Wash your sex organs everyday
- Wear clean underwear to avoid infections
- Change your underwear everyday or as often as needed
- Wash your underwear very well
- Put your underwear in a clean cabinet
- Urinate after you empty your bladder
- Take a bath regularly
- For the girls. Use sanitary napkin properly
- Avoid using toilets in public places
The Respiratory System
Naturally, in order to live, we need air. We need air for life which is called oxygen. Without it, we could not live. As a contrast, carbon dioxide is in your body which is carried back to your lungs in your blood that is expelled from your body. The respiratory system is a system that helps you to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.
- Nasal cavity- this is where nostrils take place.
- Pharynx- a tube like passageway for both food and air located between the nasal cavity and the esophagus.
- Larynx- the structure between the pharynx and trachea to which the vocal chords are attached.
- Trachea- a tube that carries air into bronchi.
- Bronchi- two tubes of the trachea that carries air into the lungs.
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The air enters your body by the two nostrils, which is the opening in your nose. The hairs in nostrils trap the dust from the air. Next to nostrils is the nasal cavity. The air in nasal cavity gets moistened and warmed. In nasal cavity, there are glands that produce sticky mucus wherein dust, pollen, and other materials trapped by it. This trapping helps filtering the air you breathe. The cilia, a tiny hair like structure, move the mucus and trapped materials into the back of the throat to where it can be swallowed. Between the nasal cavities is the pharynx. This is where a flap of tissue found at the end of it called the epiglottis. Epiglottis closes over your larynx when you swallowed instead the food or liquid goes into your esophagus. The larynx found between the pharynxes and trachea to where the vocal cords are attached.
The vocal cords produces sound when speak. Below the larynx is the trachea. It is 12 cm long which is composed of C-shaped rings of cartilage to keep it open. The two short tubes called bronchi carry air into the lungs. The smallest tubes are called the bronchioles. The alveoli, a tiny-walled sacs that clustered at the end of it are arranged in grape-like cluster covered by the capillaries. In between of the alveoli and capillaries are the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Proper Ways of Caring for the Respiratory System
- Avoid smoking and polluted air
- Breathe through your nose not through your mouth
- Exercise regularly
- Use your own handkerchief
- Keep yourself from crowded places
- Sleep with windows open
- Consult a doctor to prescribe you a proper medication
Common Ailments Affecting the Respiratory System
- Emphysema- a disease in which the alveoli in the lungs lose this ability to expand and contract. This result in shortness of breath.
- Chronic bronchitis- a disease in which too much mucus is produced I the bronchial tubes. People who have chronic bronchitis cough often.
- Asthma- a disease that affects the parts of your body you use in breathing.
- Coughing- is a reflex that moves unwanted matter from the respiratory passages.
- Lung cancer- this is usually gets from inhaling tar in cigarette smoke.
- Colds- are caused by virus. It is accompanied by sneezing and coughing.
- Pneumonia- this is caused by virus and bacteria. It is marked by swelling of the lungs.
- Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) - is a communicable disease caused by microorganisms. It manifests in the lesions of the lungs.
The Urinary System
It is a system of excretory organs that rids blood of wastes excess water and salt.
- Kidney- two organs that filter blood to produce the waste liquid called urine.
- Ureter – tubes that lead kidney to the bladder.
- Urinary bladder- is a bag-shaped muscular organ that stores urine.
- Urethra- a tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body.
The kidney is made up of about million tiny units called nephrons. Neurons are made up of cup-like structures called Bowman’s capsule, which narrows into a long coiled tubule. There are blood vessels bringing blood to the kidney and it returns the purified/filtered blood in the general circulation. The purified blood together with the necessary materials and most of the water are circulated back throughout the body by the renal veins. There are remaining liquid called urine that contains urea, salt, water and other substances is forced into the bladder through peristaltic action. When the bladder already filled it forced out of the body through the urethra.
What happens when your urinary organs don’t work properly?
- Waste products are not removed
- Water removed from body tissues
- Fluids build up around the heart
- Imbalance of salts
- Kidney problems
How to take care the urinary system
- Drink 8 to 10 glasses of water every day
- Urinate at once when you feel your bladder is filled up
- Avoid eating salty foods
- Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables
- Consult a doctor when you notice something wrong with your urine.