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Famous Female Scientists
Science has really changed the shape of this Earth. But science couldn't prosper without the contributions of researchers and scientists. Throughout the ages many genius minds have contributed in the technological evolution of this planet.
The most drastic scientific changes also known as the industrial revolution took place few centuries back. Many male scientists became prominent during this era.
But not just men, in fact many genius women also played a major role in this revolution and contribution to science. Here are some of the most famous female scientists of both the modern and the olden times:
Marie Sklodowska Curie was born on November 07, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. She was a physicist, chemist and first female professor at the University of Paris.
She contributed in the field of radioactivity and was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes; onein physics and the other in chemistry.
In Paris, she obtained her further degrees and carried out scientific work. Curie Institute in Warsaw and Paris was founded by Marie Curie herself. Her husband Pierre Curie, daughter Irène Joliot-Curie and son-in-law Frédéric Joliot-Curie were also honored Nobel prizes.
She worked on the theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes and discovered polonium and radium. She directed the first ever studies about the treatment of cancers using radioactive isotopes. In 1932 she founded Radium Institute in Warsaw. She died on July 04, 1934.
Maria Goeppert Mayer
Maria Goppert was born in Poland at the city of Kattowitz in the year 1906. She was a mathematician and physicist and on her work on the nuclear shell structure was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963.
She started by studying mathematics, but changed her course of study to physics. She got her doctorate in 1930. She got married to Joseph E. Mayer, an American student in 1930 and migrated to the United States.
They had two children; one of them became an astronomer and other an assistant professor of economics.
Famous Scientists Of The 20th Century
- Famous Scientists Of The 20th Century
The only word that simply defines the 20th century is revolution. The change brought to the world during the 100 years of this century was so huge, that by the time it ended the whole face of the earth was changed.
Rachel Louise Carson was born on May 27, 1907 on a farm in Pennsylvania. Her first story was published when she was 10 years old but she became a permanent nature writer in the 1950s.
She was a marine biologist and a writer who wrote on nature. Her career started off as a biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. She wrote books like; The Sea around Us, The Edge of the Sea, Under the Sea Wind.
She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter. Finally she died on April 14, 1964.
Famous Afro American Scientists
- Famous Black Scientists
For prosper a country, there is a need to advance in technology, warfare, education and the field of medicine; all this is only possible by discoveries made and experiments led by scientists.
Industrial Revolutions In History
- Industrial Revolutions
During the 18th century dramatic changes took place in history. People started to shift from an agrarian culture to a more sophisticated machine culture.
Gertrude Belle Elion
Gertrude Belle Elion was born on January 23, 1918. She was born in New York City and graduated from Hunter College in 1937 and New York University in 1941. She also worked as a lab assistant and a school teacher.
She was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, and received Nobel Prize in 1988 in Physiology or Medicine.
Her other awards included the National Medal of Science, 1991 and the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award, 1997.
Elion developed a large number of new drugs, using inventive research methods that later would lead to the maturity of the AIDS drug AZT.
In her whole career, she never had a PhD but received two of honorary PhD degrees; one from Polytechnic University and other from Harvard University.
- The first treatment for leukemia by a 6-mercaptopurine
- The first immuno-suppressive agent for organ transplants, Azathioprine
- Medicine for gout a Allopurinol,
- Medicine for malaria, Pyrimethamine
- Invention for meningitis, septicemia, and bacterial infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts, Trimethoprim
- For viral herpes a Acyclovir
Alessandra Giliani was born in 1307. She was an Italian anatomist, being a preparer of dissections for anatomical study.
She had assisted one of the Professors in University of Bologna, Mondino De’ Luzzi. She developed a technique to drain out blood from a dead body and substituting it with a colored dye which solidifies.
She died on March 26, 1326.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born on 25 July 1920 and died on 16 April 1958. She was a British biophysicist, chemist, physicist, X-ray crystallographer and biologist.
She had made various contributions towards the study of molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal and graphite. Apart from this she worked on X-ray diffraction images of DNA. In 1953, her data was used by Crick and Watson in a hypothesis relating to the structure of DNA.
She directed the pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic and polio viruses. She had ovarian cancer and died at the age of 37 due to its complications.
Dame Jane Morris Goodall was born on 3 April 1934. She is a British primatologist, anthropologist and ethnologist. She had also served as UN messenger of peace.
She is known as the world's leading expert of chimpanzees, and had studied social life of wild chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania for 45 years.
Apart from this she is also the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and had worked greatly on preservation of animal welfare.
Famous Male Scientists And Inventors
- Thomas Edison (The Great Inventer)
The versatile American inventor, who singly or jointly held a world record of 1093 patents and also created the world's first industrial research laboratory, was born on February 11, 1847.
- Isaac Newton
According to the Gregorian calendar, Newton was born on January 4 that year in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire. Named Isaac after his late father, who had died some three months before his birth.
- John Dalton
John Dalton was born in a Quaker (a religious society) family in Eaglefield, Cumberland County. His mother, Deborah, lived by the motto "for God and husband". His father earned his living at the handloom.
- JAMES WATT (Inventor Of The Steam Engine)
James Watt, Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, renowned for his improvements of the steam engine was born on January 19, 1736, in Greenock, Scotland.
- The Wright Brothers (Inventor Of Aeroplanes)
For centuries man dreamt of flying, but he knew that the flying carpets' of the Arabian Nights were nothing but meagre dreams.
- Stephen Hawking (One Of The Greatest Scientists Of Modern Times)
People with great aspirations have to bear hurdles in their life but there are those who even don't have to go through tough times.