ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy

Updated on September 4, 2010

Problems faced by the FED

The FED is currently facing several problems, one of which is slow economic growth. Even though interest rates are reaching record lows, the bank’s requirements for loans are so strict that a lot of potential borrowers don’t qualify for the loans. One reason banks are not giving out as many loans is because of moral hazard. The unemployment and foreclosure rates are high so banks are at risk for defaulted loans. The FED could help stimulate the economy by lowering the reserve requirements and the discount rate. This would give the banks more flexibility in lending and people wouldn’t be so worried about appending money.

Another problem the FED faces right now is financial market instability. The Dow Jones industrial average, the S&P 500 (SPX) and the Nasdaq (COMP) have all seen volatile conditions recently. The FED could help the stock market to go up by lowering the interest rates. When the interest rates go down, the stock market goes up.

A third problem faced by the Fed is that a policy that is meant to achieve one monetary policy goal may have a negative effect on another policy goal. For example, if the FED chooses to lower the interest rates to make the stock market go up, then they would eventually have to raise them again. The fluctuations in interest rates could then hinder economic growth.

How the FED affects the banking sytem

The Federal Reserve affects the banking system through open market operations (OMO) in several ways. One way the FED affects the banking system the buying of securities. If a lot of checks are clearing or a lot of deposits withdrawals are taking place in a day, the banks reserves will fall. The central bank can then step in and buy securities to raise the reserves back up. These fluctuations can often be predicted and the security purchases can be done before the reserves fall to low.

Another way the FED affects the banking system with OMO is through selling securities. If the amount of reserves held by bank is expected to rise, the Fed can sell securities to prevent major fluctuations in the reserves. Open market operations are very flexible so they can be used on a very small or a very large scale.

A third way the FED uses OMO to affect banking operations is through temporary transactions like repurchase agreements and matched sale-purchase transactions. The are short-term open market operations in which securities are bought or sold with the agreement to buy or sell them back in a very short term. These allow the FED to make temporary adjustments to banking operations that will be reversed in several days. They could be used in the case of a storm coming through that will delay check clearing. Temporary transactions would keep the reserves balanced until the storms pass and checks start clearing.

Reserve Requirements

Reserve requirements are the amount of cash that the bank is required to keep on hand to fulfill deposit withdrawals. When the FED decreases the reserve requirements it causes the federal funds rate to fall. When the bank is required to keep less money in reserves, they are able to lend that money out, in effect promoting economic growth.

Discount Loans

The FED can also affect bank operations by lowering the rate in discount loans. The interest rate on these loans is typically set higher than the federal funds rate target, and in most conditions the amount of discount lending under the primary credit facility is very small. As a lender of the last resort, the FED can lower the discount rate and offer discount loans to bank to prevent failure and bank panic.

Targets for monetary aggregates and interest rates

The FED can set intermediate targets for either monetary aggregates or interest rates, but can not set targets for both of them at the same time. This is because the demand for reserves fluctuates with unexpected deposit transactions and banks decisions on reserve holding. Because intermediate targets on monetary aggregates and interests rates will have adverse effects on each other, the FED must choose just one of the targets to set by examining observability, measurability, controllability and predictable effect on goals.

The economy is currently in an unstable condition. Stocks prices are falling and prices on Treasury bonds are rising. The FED has vigorously been trying to solve the economic crises but there comes the problem of solving one monetary policy goal has a negative effect on another goal. For example, economic growth will most likely be accompanied by inflation.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      vinsanity 

      7 years ago

      This is a very well written hub here, good job. I think that our national debt might be a problem that we can never get out of, no matter how much the Feds try to fix it.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)