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Flexible Grouping Strategies to Promote Reading Literacy

Updated on February 5, 2019

Teachers think another ways to provide students the easiest way to achieve reading literacy. In some cases groupings are the best way to make the nature of the learning be valuable.

These various are called T.A.P.S:

  • T(total group)- skills are demonstrated to the whole class
  • A (alone) - the students work alone and think independently.
  • P (pair) - shares ideas, discusses new information or processes learning. This is what we called scaffolding.
  • S (small group) - this may be composed of three or four students. Unfortunately this may lead to off-task commitment to the goal.

According to experienced teachers, T.A.P.S can be used to groups into various types:

  • Ability- based on their needs
  • Heterogeneous- cooperative learning
  • Random- quick/instant grouping
  • Structured- based on student’s profiles complementary strength/needs
  • Interest- choice and tasks of learner

Total Group

This total group involves the reading aloud strategies.

Reading aloud promotes listening, enhanced vocabulary, mentor’s comprehension and instills alone for reading in students. This may be used as one-on-one, to a small group, or to the total group.

Shared reading, according to Routman(1991) defines “shared reading as any rewarding reading situation where the learners see text and observes a more expert with fluency and expression. It offers struggling readers a way to be involved in reading in a non threatening situation”.

Guided reading is levels of thinking where teachers can develop questions to challenge students. The following are some of these:

  1. The students are given a passage to read
  2. The teacher introduced the topic and the students make predictions, share objectives and purposes. Raise questions for active prior knowledge and predict about what might be the story be about.
  3. Unfamiliar words are introduced and applied when encountered or discovered.
  4. The students read silently or orally.
  5. Lastly, the teacher guides and bath-in during the reading.

Independent Reading
Independent Reading | Source


This may be defined from the word itself alone as working independently ion reading. This involves the independent reading defines as an integral part of a balanced reading program. It lets the students choose the books, whatever they want. It says that the time is spent by the students is a good indicator of their future growth as a reader, however, students still needs guidance for a while. There are some suggested prompts related to independent reading:

  • Why did you choose this book?
  • How did find it?
  • What did you like best in that book?
  • Did you read another book with the same author?
  • What is the most interesting part in the book?
  • Did the title a good one? Why or why not?
  • If you are given a chance, what do you want to change in the story?

By with that their independence, the student is asked to create a simple report or make a summary of the story. They may encourage doing any of the following:

  • Make a poster to endorse the book
  • act out the best scene
  • create a radio advertisement
  • send a letter to your friend
  • design a skit to attract and motivate the interest of others to the book
  • make a poem to gain interest in the book
  • create a postcard about the book

Group reading via
Group reading via | Source


This is a reading tactics which involves two persons which they work together and help each other in reading.

This involves paired or buddy reading, which is a valuable technique for slow readers. The more competent one reads and the less competent follows. It is said that it is an enjoyable learning experience to promote model fluency. Even those who are unable to read can also participate in the discussion and enjoy the context.

This gives credit to information to students with different levels of reading abilities. A buddy can be a classmate or schoolmate even in the same or higher level grade. Through this tactic, students can finish their reading task and assignment as well.

Small Groups

This is situated with homogeneous for skill development and heterogeneous for cooperative development. This can be group randomly or structured by the teachers.

This involves the literature of information circles which create “opportunities for dialogue and deepen understanding” according to Daniels (1994). The students in a circle may take a specific role in the following:

  • Discussion manager

1. Make questions

2. Keeps everyone involved

3. Directs the discussion

4. Suggests ideas

  • Vocabulary manager

5. Find new words

6. Look for meanings

7. Create a game

  • Illustrator

8. Pick an interesting part of the selection

9. Make a picture about the story

10. Tells the story

  • Connector

11. Locates details in the story related to students’ lives

12. Find details and relate to another story

  • Wordsmith

13. Finds figurative words

14. Find examples of figure of speech

Also, this tactic involves round robin reading, which is an effective strategy to cultivate skills in reading, listening, and in speaking. A group has four members having their own specific tasks.

  • Person 1- the reader of the text
  • Person 2- the questioner and creates question about the text read
  • Person 3- gives the answer to the question
  • Person 4- is the recorder and supporter of the question and answer and checks any other information.

Which type of reading is more effective to you?

See results

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