Functions and Uses that Living Things Perform
Biology is a branch of science that deals with the study of life. The term was introduced in Germany in 1800 and popularized by the French naturalist Baptiste de Lamarck as a means of including the expanding number of disciplines involved with the study of living forms.
Biology also includes the study of humans at molecular, cellular and organismal levels. It studies their structures and functions, how they are identified and classified and how they interact with one another and with their nonliving environment. Living things have common characteristic in structure and function. All living things whether big or small are structurally made of cells.
Obtain Food and Use Energy
All biotic factors obtain food through the process of photosynthesis and use energy of sunlight. In this process, plants obtain carbon dioxide from the air and minerals from the soil and use light energy from the sun to produce their food.
Animals feed on other organism to get the energy they need to grow and reproduce. Cellular respiration is the process on how they obtain energy from the foods they eat. It is the process of which joining oxygen with the molecules of food or aerobic or of reorganizing the atoms within the molecules for anaerobic respiration as well.
Every animal needs minimum intake of foods for their metabolism and daily activities that they will be using for day to day struggle. For humans, food energy typically comes from joining oxygen with carbohydrates, ethanol, fats, proteins, organic acids and polyols present in the diets. Some provides little or minimum energy but still needs by our body for metabolism such as water, minerals, vitamins and fiber for some survival reasons.
Energy is measured in joules (J) or Kilojoules (KL) in the International System of Units likely to be used in food-related quantities In older metric system unit of energy, still widely used in food-related contexts, "large calorie" or kilocalorie (kcal or Cal) which is equal to 4.184 kilojoules ,calorie; more precisely, the "food calorie"
Ethanol (drinking alcohol)
Polyols (sugar alcohols, sweeteners)
Things Grow and Develop
We see that all living things grow and develop. Growth is the process by which a plant increases in the number and size of leaves and stems while development is the process by which a change occurs during an organism's life producing a more complex organism. Cells produce more energy and multiply by going through the process of cell division. The body physically increases in size and becomes more complex.
Organism begins life is just a single cell. A butterfly begins as an egg, grows and develops into caterpillar and eventually unfolds its wings as an adult insect. A mango tree begins as a seed, germinates into seedling and eventually flowers and bear fruit as a mature plant. You started off as a fertilized egg floating down a fallopian tube and a plant begins life as a fertilized egg nestled inside an ovary, inside a carpel, inside a flower.
All things reproduce. It is an important part of the life of living and that is the ability and opportunity to reproduce and to create offspring. Reproduction is the process by which one or more living things creates or reproduce another living creature.
Our parents created us through Sexual Reproduction and also a mother and father dog reproduce to born puppies. By reproducing, living things are able to pass on their characteristics to another generation for it is inherit. A one celled amoeba divides and produces new individuals. Bird mate and eggs are laid to hatch into tiny chicks.
In order to perpetuate and survive they need to reproduce offspring for the new generation. For they will soon die they need to reproduce through sexual reproduction so that their race will not extinct and to continue to live.
Respond to Stimuli
Living things respond to stimuli. In Physiology, stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. It is the ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli is called sensitivity. It is a stimulus is applied to a sensory receptor which is elicits or influences of a reflex via stimulus transduction. Some Internal stimuli are Homeostatic Imbalances which is the driving force of the body, blood pressure cardiac and heart rate output are measured by stretch receptors found in the carotid arteries and the external stimuli are Touch and pain, Vision, Smell, Taste, Sound, Equilibrium.
The cellular response to stimuli are on Mechanical stimulus which the cellular sensors of force are proposed to be extracellular matrix molecules, elements of the nuclear matrix, chromatin, cytoskeleton, transmembrane proteins, proteins at the membrane-phospholipid interface, and the lipid bilayer and a chemical stimuli such as odorants, are received by cellular receptors that are often coupled to ion channels responsible for chemotransduction.
In Systematic response to stimuli are the Nervous-system response, Muscular-system response, Endocrine-system response, Digestive-system response and Enteric nervous system.
An animal may move to capture its prey or to flee from its enemy. A plants shoot grows towards the light while its roots grow into the soil.
Adapted and Able to Evolve
Living things are adapted to their environment and are able to evolve. Adaptation allows an organism to change to help it cope with unfavorable changes in the environment. Organism change as they evolve adaptive traits that may be passed on from parent offspring. Giraffes’ that evolve long neck, are adapted better to short food supply for they are able to eat leaves on treetops that other animals cannot reach.
References; Science and Technology by Lilia M. Rabago Ph. D , Crescensia C. Joaquin Ph.D, Catherine B. Lagunzad , PH. D , http://8thgradecharacteristicsoflivingthings.wikispaces.com , thenakedscientists.com, kidsbiology.com, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia