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Fundamentals of Research: Its Characteristics, Purposes and Classifications

Updated on January 17, 2018

Everything in this world is a product of research. We cannot discover something if we don’t dare to search. Not all what we see is real; sometimes it is just only illusions. We must not be contented with what we see and to what we have because you cannot move on if you just stay in a corner.

Research- simply meant it was a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments and procedures to obtain a more adequate solution to a problem.

There are wide explanations regarding research which gives clarification to what research truly means. In this chapter, it takes about the characteristics, purposes, kinds, classification and those important terms used in research.

Characteristics or Research

1. Systematic

The research used the step by step process from defining the problem to defining the new problem

2. Controlled

This means that the research is controlled and alternative explanations of the outcome are out.

3. Empirical

The research gathers factual data or past experiences

4. Inquiry

This is the “why” of the research which is to investigate, and search for truth and knowledge

5. Subject/ topic

This is the “what” of the research. This is all about the research simply means this is the scope and limitations of the research.

6. Problem solving

This is where the finding out the answer to the problem

7. Method

This is the “how” of the research wherein is to identify the respondents, preparing tools or instruments for gathering

Researching | Source

Purposes of Research

  • To discover new facts
  • To find solutions to the problem
  • To develop new product
  • To discover unrecognized elements
  • To validate generalizations into systematic order
  • To provide basis for decision making
  • To satisfy the researchers’ curiosity
  • To acquire better and deeper understanding
  • To verify existing knowledge
  • To improve the educational practices
  • To provide health and prolong life
  • To enhance mans’ basic life

What kind of research will you use if ever you will conduct a research paper?

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Kinds of research

1. Empirical

This is a research that is based on direct experiences and /or practical experiences in everyday life

2. Logical

This is kind of research that is based on valid procedures and principles

3. Cyclical

This is kind of research which means it involves a cyclical process throughout the research

4. Analytical

This is kind of research that uses and utilizes problem analytical procedures in gathering information

5. Replicability

This is where the research reproduced or replicated the procedures in gathering information

6. Critical

This is kind of research where it exhibits careful and precise judgments

Research | Source

Classification of Research

1. According to purpose

  • Predictive or prognostic - form the word itself the purpose is to determine the future operation
  • Directive- this means that is to determine what should be done based on the finding
  • Illuminative- this is the interaction of the components of educational system

2. According to goal

  • Basic or pure- this is done for the development of theories and principles
  • Applied- the goal is to test the efficiency of theories and principles of research

3. According to the level of investigations

  • Exploratory - this is the research studies the variables pertinent to a specific situations
  • Descriptive - this is where it studies the relationships of the variables of the research
  • Experimental - studies or experiments the effects of the variables on each other

4. According to the type of analysis

  • Analytical approach - this class of research attempts to identify and isolate the components of the research situation.
  • Holistic approach - this is where it begins with the total situation focusing the attention on the system first and on its internal relationships.

5. According to scope

  • Action research - It is the application of the steps of the scientific method in the classroom problem. This action research seeks more dependable, reliable and appropriate means of promoting and evaluating growth in line with specific and general objectives.

6. According to choice of answers to problem

  • Evaluation- this evaluation is the possible courses of action in which the researchers try to find out the most advantageous findings.
  • Developmental - this focuses on the findings wherein it develops more the available instruments that has been used.

Types of Research/Designs

7. According to statistical

  • Quantitative/ statistical research - this class of research is one in which inferential statistics are utilized to determine the results of the study. Some instances such as collection, chi-square and analysis of variance are used to test the hypothesis.
  • Non-quantitative research - this is the descriptive data rather than statistical data which is used to describe the result of the research.

8. According to time allotment

  • Historical research - this describes “what was” the research which is pertaining to the past.
  • Descriptive research - this describes “what is” of the research which is pertaining to the present situations in gathering information.
  • Experimental research - this describes “what will be” of the research that is what will be the outcome or the resuilt of this research to the future.

Types of Research Design
Types of Research Design | Source

9. According to the Types and Kinds of Research

This focuses on the area of field of activity.

a. Propriety research

  • This is only conducted to the specific audience or respondents and it is not shared beyond that audience.

b. Scholarly research

  • This class of research aims to help the society by providing them information and making them knowledgeable through research.

c. Behavioral research

  • This is where the researchers explore and try to socialize to their specific respondents wherein they can observe what people do and by with that you can transform theory to reality.

d. Phenomenological research

  • This means the researchers studies the belief of the people to what they do depends to what they perceive or what goes in their mind.

e. Communication research

This is the investigation of the five elements where communication occurs:

  • Control analysis (source)

This emphases the performance of the communication.

  • Content analysis (message)

This determines the nature and the characteristics of the message and its appeal.

  • Media analysis (channel)

This emphasizes the Medias’ comparative advantageous media features and costs.

  • Audience analysis (receiver)

This concerns the audience behavior, taste, interest where they can provide feedbacks according to their level and expectations.

  • Impact analysis (effects)

This aims to know the current trends in such areas on communication media system information and can be done on awareness, attitudes, change on behavior and practice level.

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