- Education and Science»
- Geology & Atmospheric Science
THE BASIS OF ART BUILDINGS
The basis belong to art buildings (viaduct, bridge, underpass, footbridge, leaning buildings, aperture, etc.) , by examination of the relations belongs to ground (the carrying power, sitting, stability) , each one will be projected separately, during the life of project in a way that it will remain stable.
Table, km, research study (drilling, research hole) belong to art buildings that will take place in project, the type of art structure, the type of base, the kind of ground/ rock etc. , will be prepaired in a way that the information will be included.
Furthermore, the following criteria must be taken into consideration:
-probable carved depth that will take place inside stream (potamic),
-the depth of freezing penetration,
-the cost of relative solutions.
At the end of ground mechanic and geotechnical evaluations, the layers under the base or the basis of building, ( the tensions that are conveyed via basis from building can be accepted as sufficient and, in general, in static case 3, that satisfy a safety number) must have in a capacity that it will carry safely, the sittings, especially the different sittings, must be remain in the boundaries that will keep up the building stability.
Moreover, the following properties must be taken into consideration:
In the cases when important vertical tension decreases in question, ( for the basis that sit on the split, swelling of the ground must be examined.
-For basis drillings that will able to be a stability problem ( the bases that sit on declivity) , for the drilling stability, analysis must be done.
-The interaction of two bases drilling for the bases that close to each other, must be examined.
-The determined properties in article 5, must be taken into consideration for poor/compressible grounds.
-At the manufacture stage and/or after it , probable underground water level, must be determined in project stage, the necessary suggestions must take place in report for manufacture stage
-During basis drillings and its productions (neighbourhood) must be investigated whether the environment buildings will affect or not.
-At the places where the liquefaction risk will be able to be, the calculations of liquefaction must be done.
The experiments in the article and, if necessary, in the article will be performed, the profile of idealise ground and plan will be carry out, drilling and research data will be indicated at the heights that will be processed basis of geologic profile and wide cross-sections.
For art structure bases, the amounts of the carrying capacity (shallow/deep base) and sitting, by considering the duration, suitable base (basis) system must be suggested.
Concerning with the carrying power; by determining the loads that come from superstructure and moments, these values must be given in case of table in geotechnical report. In relate to these loads, for the static and dynmic loading cases, appropriate base type will be determined by performing the calculations of carrying power.
CARRYING POWER OF SURFACE BASES
The depth at the distant 2B to the basic basis level (two times of basis width) , must be identified as (c, f, g vb.) geotechical.
By considering that the loades that come from superstructure that belongs to on this basis, N (normal force M) (moment) and Df (the depth of basis), B (basis width), L( basis length); the carrying power calculations must be performed and, the carrying capacity must be compared with the loads that come to basis.
The safety number for static case, and for sismic situation must be taken as GS=3, and G.S.=1.01 , respectively.
At the feet sides and retaining walls; turnover, sliding investigations must be performed and, the tensions that formed under the base must be determined and, maximum tension must be compared with reliable carrying power.
THE CARRYING POWER OF DEPTH BASES
The depth base must be evaluated in the cases that reliable carrying power can not obtained by surface basis system, or with the others methods (replacing place of material etc. ) the economic solution does not exist.
Also, ground profile that showed stake cap height and stake depths, must be made out. Drilling data (RQD, SPT values, YASS and ground stratification) , if there exits, presiometry values basis ground properties, parameters and geologic informations, must be showed on this profile.
The sitting amounts that will form under the approach fillings at side feet, and their durations must be calculated. Without completing the sittings that will form under the approach fillings, the manufacture of side feet stakes, in case in question, the negative friction force must be calculated.
If, after the sittings had completed, deep base will be made, the manufacture stage must be emphasized in the report. In this case, at the side foot stamble capacity calculations, the negative friction force must not be taken into consideration.
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