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Updated on April 6, 2011



The basis belong to art buildings (viaduct, bridge, underpass, footbridge, leaning buildings, aperture, etc.) , by examination of the relations belongs to ground (the carrying power, sitting, stability) , each one will be projected separately, during the life of project in a way that it will remain stable.



Table, km, research study (drilling, research hole) belong to art buildings that will take place in project, the type of art structure, the type of base, the kind of ground/ rock etc. , will be prepaired in a way that the information will be included.



Furthermore, the following criteria must be taken into consideration:


-probable carved depth that will take place inside stream (potamic),

-the depth of freezing penetration,

-the cost of relative solutions.


At the end of ground mechanic and geotechnical evaluations, the layers under the base or the basis of building, ( the tensions that are conveyed via basis from building can be accepted as sufficient and, in general, in static case 3, that satisfy a safety number) must have in a capacity that it will carry safely, the sittings, especially the different sittings, must be remain in the boundaries that will keep up the building stability.


Moreover, the following properties must be taken into consideration:


In the cases when   important vertical tension decreases in question, ( for the basis that sit on  the  split,  swelling of the  ground  must be  examined.


-For basis drillings  that will  able to  be a stability problem ( the bases that sit on declivity) , for the drilling stability, analysis  must be done.


-The interaction of two bases drilling  for the bases that close to each other, must be examined.


-The determined  properties in article 5, must be taken into consideration for poor/compressible grounds.


-At the manufacture  stage and/or after it , probable  underground water level, must be determined in  project stage, the necessary suggestions  must  take place in report  for  manufacture stage


-During basis drillings and  its productions (neighbourhood) must be investigated whether the environment buildings will affect  or not.


-At the places where the liquefaction risk  will  be able to be, the calculations of liquefaction must be done.


The experiments in the article and,  if necessary,  in the article will be performed, the profile of  idealise ground and plan will be carry out,  drilling and research  data will be indicated at  the  heights that will be processed basis of  geologic profile and wide cross-sections.


For  art structure bases, the amounts of  the carrying capacity (shallow/deep base)   and sitting, by considering the duration, suitable base (basis) system must be suggested.


Concerning with the carrying power; by determining the loads that come from superstructure and moments,  these values  must be given in case of  table in  geotechnical report.   In relate to these loads, for the static and dynmic loading  cases,   appropriate base type will be determined by performing  the calculations  of carrying power.



The depth at the distant 2B to the basic  basis level (two times of basis width) , must be identified as   (c, f, g vb.) geotechical.


By considering that the loades that come from superstructure that belongs to on this basis, N (normal force M) (moment)  and   D  (the depth of basis), B (basis width), L( basis length); the carrying power calculations  must be performed and,    the  carrying  capacity must be compared with the loads that come to basis.


The safety number for static case, and for sismic situation must be taken  as GS=3,  and G.S.=1.01 , respectively.



At the feet sides and  retaining  walls; turnover,  sliding  investigations  must be performed and, the tensions that formed under the base must be  determined and, maximum tension  must be compared with reliable carrying power.



The depth base must be evaluated in the cases that reliable carrying power can not obtained  by surface basis system, or  with the  others methods  (replacing place of  material etc. )  the economic solution  does not exist.  


Also, ground profile  that showed  stake cap height and stake  depths,  must be  made out.  Drilling data (RQD, SPT values, YASS and ground stratification) , if there exits, presiometry values basis  ground properties, parameters and geologic  informations, must be showed on this profile.



The sitting amounts that will form  under the approach fillings  at side feet, and their durations must be calculated.  Without completing the sittings that will form under the  approach fillings, the manufacture of   side feet  stakes, in case in question,  the negative friction force must be calculated.



If, after the sittings had completed, deep base will be made, the manufacture  stage  must be emphasized  in the report. In this case, at the  side foot  stamble capacity  calculations, the negative friction force must not be taken into consideration.


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    • daffodil2010 profile image

      daffodil2010 7 years ago

      thank you

    • stars439 profile image

      stars439 7 years ago from Louisiana, The Magnolia and Pelican State.

      Excellent hub. God Bless You.