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Updated on December 31, 2019
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Gynecology is the branch of medical which deals with the health of women, especially those affecting the reproductive system.

Gynecology is the branch of medical which deals with the health of women, especially those affecting the reproductive system.

It's deal with the wide range of issues, including pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, obstetrics, fertility, sexually transmitted disease (STDs), hormonal disorders, and many others.

Fundamentals and facts

  • The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, Fallopian
    tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands and breasts. These
    organs are involved in the production of sex hormones and production and transportation of gametes.
  • The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops
    into the fetus.
  • The uterus produces uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes.
  • The ovaries produce the egg cells.

Physiology of menstrual cycle

Menstrual cycle is the scientific term for the physiological changes that occur in women for sexual reproduction. It is controlled by the endocrine system.

It divided into three phases

  1. Follicular Phase
  2. Ovulation
  3. Luteal Phase

Follicular Phase- During this phase follicles in the ovary become mature and end with ovulation. Estradiol is the main hormone controlling this stage. During this phase, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

Ovulation- In this phase mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum. Also known as female gamete, or egg. This usually occurs mid-cycle, around two weeks or so before menstruation starts. In thishase hypothalamus releases gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This hormone help to raised levels of luteinising hormone (LH) and FSH.

Luteal Phase- This phase begins with the formation of the corpus luteum. The main hormone associated with this stage is progesterone, which is significantly higher during the luteal phase. The corpus luteum keeps producing the raised levels of progesterone that are needed to maintain the thickened lining of the uterus.

Common Menstrual Problems

  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
  • Heavy Menstrual Bleeding
  • Amenorrhoea
  • Dysmenorrhoea


Emergency Contraception

Contraception is known as birth control used to prevent pregnancy.

Emergency Contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected
intercourse or possible failure of contraceptive method (e.g. : missed pills, condom breakage).

There are two type of Emergency Contraception

  • Hormonal
  • Non‐hormonal

Hormonal (Levonorgestril)

  • If fertilization and implantation have already happened, Emergency Contraception Pills will not work.
  • It is most effective when taken within 24 hours after unprotected intercourse.
  • Emergency contraception is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex.
  • Oral levonorgestrel has a contraceptive effect when taken up to 120 hours
    (5 days) after unprotected intercourse.
  • They prevent or delay ovulation but it is unclear if they have other mechanisms of action.
  • Has a high incidence of nausea, breast tenderness, headaches and vomiting as a side effects.
  • Menstrual period may be temporarily irregular after she takes ECPs.

Non Hormonal (Copper IUD)

  • The copper IUD could be used as a form of emergency contraception. It can be inserted on the 5th day till the 19th day.
  • At l t east three copper IUD models are available, two of which are a slimmer T‐shape version used for women who have not had children.
  • Copper IUDs are a form of long‐acting reversible contraception and are one of the most effective forms of birth control available.
  • It can be used for Emergency Contraception up to 5 days after the act of unprotected sex and does not decrease in effectiveness during the 5 days.
  • It is safe during breastfeeding.


Dysmenorrhea is the medical term used to describe painful periods. It is caused by uterine contractions. There are two types of dysmenorrhea "primary" and "secondary".

Period pain from your first period or shortly after is known as Primary Dysmenorrhoea. Pain usually begins 1 or 2 days before, or when menstrual bleeding starts. It can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fatigue and diarrhea.

Secondary Dysmenorrhea results from a disorder in the reproductive organs such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or infection. Pain begins earlier in the menstrual cycle and lasts longer than common menstrual pain.


Menstrual cramps are caused by contractions in the uterus by prostaglandin. During menstruation, the uterus contracts more strongly and cut off the oxygen supply to the muscle tissue of the uterus and cause pain.


  • Low midline abdominal pain
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain can spread to the lower back and legs
  • Pain in the hips, lower back, and inner thighs
  • Usually lasts 24 hours but may persist for 2 – 3 days
  • Clots may be passed in the menstrual blood
  • Associated with nausea, vomiting, headache, flushing
  • Digestive problems

Treatment for Dysmenorrhoea

Treatment options for dysmenorrhoea include

  • Place a heating pad or hot water bag on your lower back or abdomen.
  • Avoid caffeine.
  • Take medication such as paracetamol, ibuprofen or other anti-inflammatory medication
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol
  • Rest when needed
  • Regular exercise and Yoga

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is heavy bleeding from the uterus. It can occur at any time during monthly cycle. Ovulatory bleeding is regular heavy menstrual bleeding that sometimes occurs in association with period pain and premenstrual symptoms.

A variety of things can cause abnormal uterine bleeding. In most case, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance.

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is diagnosed in many ways like pregnancy test, blood count and/or iron deficiency test, ultrasound exam and endometrial biopsy.


There are several treatment options for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding. It will depend on the cause of your bleeding, age and future pregnancy plan.

Birth control pills: Birth control pills stop the lining of your uterus from getting too thick and help to regulate menstrual cycle and reduce cramping. When bleeding is more severe, hospitalization may be necessary.

Intrauterine device: Intrauterine device is a small device that doctor inserts into uterus to prevent pregnancy. Sometimes IUDs cause abnormal bleeding.

Dilatation and Curettage: If hormonal therapy does not work,dilation and curettage can stop bleeding. In this procedure the tissue lining of the uterus is removed.

Female Health

5 out of 5 stars from 1 rating of Female Health

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2019 pratik987


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