ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

A2 Biology Revision - The Different Parts Of The Brain

Updated on December 3, 2012
The Cerebral Cortex Diagram
The Cerebral Cortex Diagram | Source

Cerebrum

  • The cerebrum makes up 75% of our brain's volume, and 85% of it's weight!
  • It is split into two hemispheres (left and right) by the longitudinal fissure. This is what people refer to when they say "I am left brained" and "this exercise is good for the left part of your brain".
  • The left hemisphere generally controls the right side of the body and vis versa, so if you're right handed, you're 'left brained'.
  • The cerebrum is covered by a sheet of neural tissue called the "cerebral cortex" or "neocortex".
  • Roughly 90% of the brain's neurons are located in this 2-4mm thick sheet. This is achieved by having many folds, increasing available surface area.


The Cerebral Cortex

The cerebral cortex consists of 4 parts:

  1. Frontal Lobe "the higher centers of the brain"
  • Decision making, planning, reasoning, consciousness of emotion.
  • Concerned with forming associations by combining information from the other 3 parts of the cortex and our ideas.
  • Includes the primary motor cortex - the area that contains neurons that connect directly to the spinal cord and brain stem (and from there, our muscles). The primary motor cortex sends impulses to muscle cells via motor neurons. This part of the brain also stores information about carrying out different movements.

2. Occipital Lobe - "the visual center of the brain"

  • Also known as the "visual cortex"
  • Concerned with processing information from the eyes: vision, colour, shape & perspective

3. Temporal Lobe - "the hearing center of the brain"

  • Concerned with process auditory information: hearing, sound recognition, and speech (only in the left temporal lobe)

4. Parietal Lobe

Concerned with:

  • Orientation,
  • Movement,
  • Sensation,
  • Calculation
  • Some times of recognition and memory.

Cerebellum
Cerebellum

The Three Lower regions of the brain

Cerebellum - The cerebellum is only 1/8 the size of the cerebrum but is nevertheless very important and controls:

  • Co-ordination,
  • Balance, movement,
  • Breathing,
  • Digestion,
  • The circulation of blood around the body.
  • Receiving information from the primary motor cortex and muscles & joints.

Midbrain - 'The Brain's Junction'

  • Relays information to the cerebral hemispheres
  • Oral information to the temporal lobe
  • Visual information to the occipital lobe

Medulla Oblongata

Unconscious processes:

  • Heart rate
  • Breathing
  • Blood pressure

Brain Stem on a Simple Brain Diagram
Brain Stem on a Simple Brain Diagram

The Brain Stem

  • The brain stem connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord (and so to the rest of the body).

It also has roles in:

  • Cardiovascular system control,
  • Respiratory control,
  • Pain sensitivity control,
  • Alertness,
  • Consciousness

Detailed diagram of the brain
Detailed diagram of the brain

Other parts of the brain

The Thalamus

  • Responsible for routing all of the incoming sensory information to the correct parts of the brain via the axons of the white matter.

Hypothalamus

  • Lies below the thalamus
  • Contains the thermoregulatory center - monitors core body & skin temperature, initiates negative feedback responses to restore body to optimum temperature.
  • Also contains other centers that control: sleep, thirst, hunger
  • Acts as endocrine gland - secretes hormones like anti-diuretics which controls water re-absorption (in kidneys) and thus controls blood concentration.
  • Hypothalmus is attached directly to the pituitary gland.

Hippocampus

  • Involved in long term memory

Basal Ganglia

  • Group of neurons that lie deep within each hemisphere
  • Responsible for selecting and initiating stores programs for movement

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)