# Giants of Old (Nephilim)

Updated on December 29, 2015

## Comparative Physiology; Limits to Size Owing to the Laws of Physics

One of the more curious conspiracy theories in existence is the one about aliens aka fallen angels aka the nephilim who had intercourse with human females and thus gave rise to “giants and mighty men of renown”. The theory suggests that giant human beings up to 36 feet tall existed in the past and that skeletal remains have been found to prove it. Other sources say that the proof, mainly by photography, is either art or hoaxes. Could it be possible to have a “scaled up” version of human beings that exist? Are these people responsible for the building of huge megalithic structures around the world, such as obelisks that weigh up to 500 tons that we have no hope of budging let alone set upright? There is no doubt that the world is filled with mysteries that specialists are attempting to explain. But 13 to 36 foot tall human beings is a stretch based on the presented evidence.

Let us do a little simple math. Given a 6 foot tall human being weighing in at 220 pounds and compare it to the “discovered” 13 foot tall human being that would be approximately nine times the weight closing in around a ton (2,000 pounds). You can see that the supporting skeleton would have to be more robust in order to support the weight and the activating more massive muscles. A typical human femur can withstand a lateral blow of 2,000 pound, instantaneous over pressure before breaking. Given that the 13 foot human would have to run for one reason or another, a typical scaled up femur would be approaching the breaking point just for running. If we take the rest mass alone of 9.81 ft/sec.2 and double that, the instantaneous mass of acceleration and motion relative to a fixed object would double to 4,000 pounds. Thus, the femur of the 13 foot human would not just be scaled up, but more massive in addition to achieve sufficient bone strength. It would be the difference seen between the average human bone and one from a creature that we know weighs a ton, like a polar bear or a bull. Even here, the comparison has to be conditioned on the fact that humans are bipedal whereas the bear and bull are quadrupeds. If the bone circumference were increased, that risk would lower, but it would mean a more stocky appearance as a result and would increase over all weight to exceed a ton. Can such a scaled up human being run fast? Given other large animals like a horse or a bull, the answer would be yes, if the bones were of the right load bearing size. Such a person would likely be capable of running as fast as a horse or bull, whereas a normal human could not. The calorie expenditure for a 13 foot tall person would be comparatively larger and they would have to eat like a horse, that is, a lot more than you or I. They would have to eat more frequently. Heat dispersion is another problem. A person of such a size would be more tended to lethargy as running generates a lot of heat to the point of overheating and collapse. Thus, they would either have to sweat profusely and therefore drink a lot more, or prefer the shadier and cooler climes plus spending lots of time swimming or bathing in cool water.

Doing comparative physiology between sea creatures and land creatures we readily see that the skeletons of sea creatures are not as robust as those of land creatures. This is because sea creatures have bodily support of the water. Submerged and at rest, they are in essence in a near zero gravity environment. NASA has exploited this buoyancy of water to train virtually all of its astronauts. In sea vertebrates, the bones are there more for muscles to work in a rhythmic manner to give movement. Fish like sharks have mostly cartilage for skeletons and do extremely well so as long as they are in the natural environment of the ocean. This would not work on land. Consider bird skeletons that are evolved so that the breast bone can withstand the action of the wings and the driving muscles for flight.

## Cats have a tremendous size variation and thus give us some insight into bone mass questions

Since we don't have any living adult 13 foot tall human beings to do a comparison with a pygmy, we will look at cats that have a tremendous size variation between a small house cat to a full grown tiger that exist today for our analysis. Cats have one of the greatest size variations on the planet, so we can do a parallel comparison using cat sizes. Some are also highly adapted such as the cheatah. By comparing the skeletons of a domestic cat and a tiger, we can easily see the differences, when they are scaled to the same approximate size. Note the more robust spine and limbs of the tiger compared to the house cat. The spinal column is not as arched and the legs are typically held straighter. It requires less energy to stand with straight legs than with bent legs. In addition, the healthy adult house cat averages about eight pounds whereas a full grown Bengal tiger can weight up to 670 pounds. Taking an eight pound house cat and comparing it to a full grown male tiger, we can see a 84 times difference in weight. The house cat measures on average from nose tip to tail tip about 10 inches. A tiger will measure about 11 feet; an over 11 fold variation in linear dimension. The tiger being much larger, of course has a much larger skeleton. But by scaling them to the same approximate size we can immediately see the differences. If indeed humans once had such size variations from three feet to 36 feet, that would be a twelve fold difference that would compare to cat variations.

Taking the average human being and the largest nephilim allegedly recorded, we should expect to see not just a more massive skeleton, but physiological differences in bone structure, that if they were scaled to be the same size, would show up in more bone mass. The spine would be far more robust, especially close to the pelvic bone. The femurs, tibia, fibia and foot bones also more massive. More massive bones, greater muscles and tissue would make them far less flexible as well and slower running. Their size would not necessarily mean faster running, just as a charging elephant cannot run much faster than the much smaller zebra or wildebeest. In fact, some smaller animals can run much faster than larger counterparts. The cheetah can run much faster than any other cat due to its amazingly flexible spine. The existing photographs of so called nephilim humans do not show these traits. In fact, they appear to be more along the line of photo enlargement. As an example of this, we present a human skeleton for a normal sized human of six feet versus a scaled up twelve foot nephilim. They are really the same depiction where one is scaled up to twice the height with no other adjustment. The bones certainly look larger, but they would also need to be more massive to accommodate the much greater mass of the larger body. These are some of the considerations when looking at scaling up skeletons for various reasons. Given these ideas, the skeletons of the ancient giants would have to be much stockier than those of a typical human.

## This video is one of hundreds on the subject of huge human giants

There is yet another problem of large size referred to as black body radiation. For mammals this translates into being able to vent waste heat effectively. Black body radiation works like this. Radiation dissipates to the square of the area of a surface, but to the cube of the volume. This difference causes heat retention longer in large mass objects and faster radiation in low mass objects. Objects with a high area to volume relationship radiate heat faster than those with a low area to volume relationship. Nature often works out a solution such as the large ears of the elephant that dump waste heat. In human beings, the solution is worked out in the differences of short and stocky people who work well in cold climate and tall thin people that work better in hot climes. We have encountered this kind of area to surface ratio before concerning weight and bone mass. Once more, this law of physics works itself out by limiting the size of the giants who with their much greater volume to surface relationship, have a difficulty radiating body heat. Nephilim giants would thus prefer a cool or even a frigid environment and we can see an example of this where greatly overweight people like to dress lighter, even in cool or chilly weather. Both overweight people find and nephilim giants would thus find heat stifling, even deadly, especially if they have to move with any vigour. They would have to sweat profusely, which means they would require a lot more water. The only way that nature seems to solve the problem for humans is to make them tall and thin so that the surface area of the body increases to radiate more heat. Here we have something of a contradiction where a scaled up human being would increase in mass by the cube of the scaled difference and only the square of the total body surface area in the same scales. Thus to have a twelve foot person would limit them to certain situations where internal heat would not do the same to them as a heat wave does to us. The more massive they are, the more this is true. Some people claim that there were human giants on the order of 36 feet tall. These huge humans would be on the order of eight or nine tons on the low end of the weight scale, likely more due to more robust bones, muscles and lungs. They would not work well in a hot climate and might have to frequent cooling waters which would also support their mass. The problems that such giants would face are the same for all large mass animals. They would need copious amounts of water, a lot more food than us and they would also have to work harder against their own internal contradictions.

A much more massive body would also require plenty of oxygen and the lungs to extract it. In the days of the dinosaurs, the atmosphere contained about 33 % oxygen. Then there was a cataclysm of huge proportions that caused a fall off of oxygen to 10 %. Today, the level is back up to about 22 to 23 % and falling due to loss of forests and fossil fuel burning. Dinosaurs could get so large because there was a lot more oxygen in the atmosphere and they did not have to work so hard to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The climate was also different and it is thought that many were cold blooded, though this is disputed by some sources. In the era of alleged super-human giants, they would have to work with the oxygen levels we have today which would limit them to the lower atmosphere and the cooler climes and coastlines. Due to these conditions, they would likely been avid fishers, living on the abundance of the sea. Perhaps there were giants in those days as alluded in the Bible and other legends, but they would have to follow the limitations physics places on their bodies. The evidence provided by some sources is questionable at best.

This does not mean giants don't exist; they do!, the difference in size is not a far reaching as with the ideas around the nephilim. The differences we see today are well within the limits for extremes in sustainable body size. Today, adult human beings range in size from two feet to eight and not much more.

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• AUTHOR

William J. Prest

2 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

We cannot ignore the laws of physics. Human being may break the laws of God, but no one at any time, broke the law of gravity.

• Brandon T Echols

2 years ago

I think there is one important fact that's overlooked. Giants are supposed to be half angelic beings. This means that current physics goes out the door. These beings have genetics superior to humans. This is why God brought on the flood to destroy them.

• AUTHOR

William J. Prest

5 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

You needn't be so sarcastic in your delivery! There is a lot in science that is, well, faith based! Have you personally been to Mars, Antarctica, the far reaches of the cosmos? Have you actually taken measurements of a 13 foot human? Don't lecture me on hypothesis in your role as a possible paid shill. This forum; hubpages, unfortunately has degraded into an arena of mud-slinging. It is one reason why I don't post much here anymore. No one; no, not even you is an expert on it all. There is an amazing amount of math based science that gives us descriptions of things never actual observed. Therefore, until such confirming facts emerge, IT IS FAITH BASED, just like religion!

• themitchellreport

5 years ago

I'm neither for nor against 30 ft men, i really don't care. But when articles such as this claiming to be based in scientific principle are published, it saddens me that so many buy into it without question. This author is relativley inexperienced with physics, and knows little of the human body. The human body is not a mathmatical constant, therefore you're math is extremely flawed, epecially in the weight department. Just refer to the many cases already on file of actual human giants above 8ft and you will see the proof positive, weight cannot be guessed by mathmatical computatation. From 8 ft to 9 ft, ranging from less than 200 pounds to the mid 400's. A 13 ft man could easily weight less than "2000 pounds" ( You must be mad). The so called facts linking blackbody radiation physics to the negation of giants is not factual at all since blackbody radiation "formulas" can only be applied to a mass with a constant state. Common since will tell you that humans are anything but constant. Water retention, blood volume, lung capacity, lung efficiency, heart rate/ efficiency, heart volume, even the resting body temperature fluctuates, my god pick up a medical journal please !

• AUTHOR

William J. Prest

7 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

An increase in nutritious food over the last century has led to a general population height increase. Given an increase in atmospheric oxygen, any organism can tend to gigantism. That was the case with the early dinosaurs that lived in an atmosphere that contained 33 % oxygen.

• Vin Chauhun

7 years ago from Durban

Interesting hub :). could the stories in the bible be referring to the various ethnic groups just before the emergence of proto-semitic groups. I think esp the bible could be describing "northerners/new ethnic groups"

These folks may have been taller, if historic records are anything to go by.

As for humans getting to be that tall, its quite possible.

• Rephaim23

8 years ago

syzygyastro,

Good point indeed. Might explain some of the species extinction also. Howeverm, some estimates place 3 - 5 times more c02 than today's 385 ppm in the Jurassic age of the Dinosaurs and they grew to be Monsters, lots of volcanoes and C02, some estimates are that there was 1,500 - 2,000 parts per million c02 in Jurassic and even higher levels like 4,000 ppm in Craboniferous. The Jurassic world was about 65 - 70 deg. F, or about 10 degrees warmer than today's world average of 58 deg. F.

It's amazing to think some of the Mammoths and mega-fauna didn't go extinct all 12,000 years ago like the text books have always declared. Rarely mentioned is the fact that up until 1968, a third of the carbon dates on mammoth sites in Ohio proved to be younger than 10,000 years, some as young as 4,000 or 5,000 years. There were mammoth bones found in Washington state under an ash strata thought to be from the Mazama eruption, about 7,000 -8,000 years ago, and the pygmy mammoths off wrangel Island dated to only 3,700 years old. If there were still some mammoth roaming America just a couple or few thousand years ago, makes you wonder if other Pleistocene mammals lingered on a few thousand years later, like the giant bear, giant beaver, and sloth. The giant "Teraton" bird might explain some of the Thunderbird Indian legends-- maybe -- maybe not. The Teratornis merriammi, incredibilis, and woodburnensis had wings 12 to 20 feet across, twice or thrice the size of the largest eagles and condors.

pconoly,

The cover-up allegations are quite sensational. I doubt that a skeleton 20 or 30 feet long could be kept under wraps for very long. Bones of people 7, 8, 9 feet or taller could certainly be kept under wraps, treated as anomalies and carted off to some private collection or re-patriated to a local tribed for quick reburial. Many of the reported giants were probably extinct tribes of tall Native Americans, even into historic times some tribes like the Osage, Creek, and Susquehannock averaged 6 1/2 feet, and head chieftans who were 7 or 8 feet tall. That is the average size of the giant royals found in many of the burial mounds uncovered by the Smithsonian in the 1890's, some topped 9 and 10 feet, and had femurs 28 -30 inches long allegedly. The largest and tallest giants seem to have been in the 9 -12 ft range, and I do have second hand information that some giants were found in a certain State in 2009 which were within that range. It is hearsay at this point, but I do suspect they are still be found and handed over to local tribes for re-burial. Kind of like how they dealt with Kennewick man.

but a 30 ft man might have existed once, I just think photos of bones and things would have been published by now in a peer reviewed journal of science, not the photo shop fakes you see all over the net. The tallest peer reviewed height estimates I have seen (from 1890's - 1950s science papers mind you) were in the 10 - 13 ft range, for apes and man. If you have a 12 foot man, chances are there has been someone bigger, as with science, often when you think you've found the biggest of a certain species, another one turns up and dwarfs the previous contender. New facts emerge all the time. Makes the planet an evolving and mysterious place.

• Pamela K Conoly

8 years ago from Fort Worth,Tx.

That's fascinating. I would be willing to believe it. Considering other cover ups that have been revieled years later. Never-before--seen-footage of people that existed long ago, giants! Besides, we already have people today walking around. Basketball . Granted they are not the giants that have been found from years ago. I mean when you figure in atmospheric changes. That has a lot to do with it! Yes, Its very interesting. Look at Shagg(I don't know how to spell it,forgive me.) He's huge even by today's standards.

• AUTHOR

William J. Prest

8 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

Good points all! Now consider the opposite with carbon dioxide on the increase and oxygen on the decrease. This would suggest that animals will shrink in size over the generations of this trend. It is already known that in confined circumstances such as islands, that there were such things as pygmy mammoths. The last pygmy mammoth is estimated to have died 6,000 years ago.

• Rephaim23

8 years ago

I think the real life giants need not have been taller than 12 feet to qualify as "fairy tale propotions."

A modern man of 6 feet is still considered a couple of inches taller than average in most European countries, and the United States. Global height estimates if all Asian countries are included drop the average height of a man down to more like 5 ft 7 to 5 ft 9, or about 5 ft 8 on average. In certain periods and regions mankind has averaged little more than 5 feet. A giant of 12 feet compared to a 5 ft man, would be the same ratio as a 6 ft man is to a 14 1/2 ft tall man.

Therefore giants would have often appeared even taller in certain periods of the past than today.

• Rephaim23

8 years ago

That is an excellent point. In the Cretacious era greater oxygen would have been a huge factor in the gigantic growth of animal life. But even long after the cretacious many forms of animal life had giant variations. Ground sloth 12 to 22 ft tall, short face bears averaging 11 - 13 ft tall 1,500 - 2,000 lbs. Huge camel, beaver 8 feet long, Bison 7 ft at the shoulder much larger than modern Bison.

There were Heidelberg man in Africa who grew well over 6 and over 7 feet tall routinely, and they were possibly stronger than most modern football players on average. If they were indeed averaging about 7 ft in Africa as some paleo-anthropologists contend, I wouldn't doubt if 8 and 9 foot men were among them. And suppose yet, if a tribe of ancient men were averaging say, 8 ft 6, occasional 9, 10 and 11 ft men might be as common, as say, a 7 foot man is to a population of 5 ft 9 inch men.

If humans indeed did exist during an era in which oxygen were increased 33%, I suspect 30 foot human skeletons might be buried somewhere in the earth.

• AUTHOR

William J. Prest

8 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

For reasons mentioned in the article, people at the lower limit of the heights mentioned could feasibly exist. People who play basketball are typically much taller, some up to eight feet. They would operate well within the limits of skeletal structure for normal human beings. Due to constant exercise, they would tend to have stronger muscles and bones. Anyone can get that way with the same program. Larger human beings are possible given the conditions and limitations cited above.

For instance, is an atmosphere that is richer in oxygen were to exist as in past, much larger humans may be able to be supported in that condition provided all others are met. But the last time oxygen levels were anywhere above 22% was back in the Cretaceous period prior to the dinosaur extinction. At that time, the atmospheric oxygen measured at 33% or 50% more than now. That richer mix allowed for tremendous gigantism among all animals. Even flying ones measured about the size of a small private plane. But, as far as we know, human beings were not present. Some animals weighed as much as the largest whales do now. Whales have water support and also a super efficient breathing system allowing them to grow to such fantastic sizes.

• Rephaim23

8 years ago

Allegations of a "Giant Conspiracy" or "Giant Cover-up" are gaining momentum on the internet as we speak. I have emailed all of the top authors and movers and shakers in the current giant theory world, and I don't believe all of their concerns are utterly without foundation. However, sensation and exaggeration seem to be common in this field, and that is why I don't invest too heavily in the subject.

That being said, with some of the items I have uncovered, it wouldn't in the least surprise me if some museum and University collections in United States and Europe possessed the remains of humans who would have been as tall as 9 - 12 feet in life.

• Rephaim23

8 years ago

http://www.flickr.com/photos/78709115@N03/sets/721...

There are a lot of old newspaper reports from the years 1850 -1950 in the press. A lot of these old reports might have been simply tall Indians 7 ft or thereabouts, others do mention skeletons 9 to 12 feet long found in human burial mounds with bones twice the normal length and size. One of the more well documented is the giant of Castelnau, France. It is the tallest height estimate based off limb bones, that I have seen in any scientific paper. 3 m 50. That is getting awfully close to the 13 ft man you discuss. I don't think humans 3 - 4 meters were ever common on planet earth, but they seem to crop up in legends all around the world, from the Indians in North America to the Amorites in the Bible.

I keep an open mind.

It doesn't help my research at all when I see fake giant photos circling the net, of ludicrous proportions, 30 -40 feet. I haven't seen any decent evidence of any human being taller than 3 m 50, or maybe 4 meters. I'm open to 15 -20 ft, but it really seems unlikely that anyone taller than that could function. They would have to look like a Sloth, or Cave bear.

Then again, if a really mutant form of Gigantopithecus existed which proved to be bipedal like Homo Erectus, and stood 14 -16 ft tall, I'm open to it. That would be stretching it. I mean, 16 feet he would hit his head on my second story house gutter, his knee would be eye level with a man, and he could wrestle a T Rex for leisure. lol

• AUTHOR

William J. Prest

8 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

When reading these tales one has to realize that there is a lot of cosmogony involved in the myth making. Many of these stories come from sources much more ancient. The only thing that would qualify for the giants described are dinosaurs and they are not human.

8 years ago from Gillingham Kent. United Kingdom

Very interesting. You comprehensively debunk that particular conspiracy theory.

In my opinion, the only way to understand Genesis is as a great morality tale, but with prophecies.

Thanks for that great hub.

• AUTHOR

William J. Prest

8 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

The average height of a European and hence white American was at one time about 5 ft, 4 in. It is now about 5 ft. 10 in. This trend sped up into the 20th century when nutrition improved. Average life span also increased from about 30 to 70 years in the same time. This is diffidently a trend. If we look at snakes. The average one today is not that big, but in the time of dinosaurs, some grew to about 40 ft long and could easily swallow a human whole. Species size fluctuates over time, increasing and decreasing owing to a lot of influences. As they increase in size, other changes occur over the generations. Thus, giant humans over 8 feet are not entirely ruled out. It is just that they don't exist today and we will need more hard core evidence than legends and photo set ups.

• whonunuwho

8 years ago from United States

I can't help being intrigued by reading about the Watusi of Africa and the giants of Kenya or the Masai.It was seen that they were as tall as seven feet six inches and many early explorers and hunters from Europe saw these people. Then on the other hand , the pygmy people of another region of Africa are just as intriguing.at an average height of about four feet or less, these people are much less in population now, as well as the taller Masai and Watusi. One researcher noted that the average height seemed to have shrunk over time. Interesting hub. Thanks.

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