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Green Revolution in India; Factors and its After-Effects
Poverty is one of the great challenges of the humanity, all the time. An efficient agricultural system can only beat this challenge. It is not a new generation phenomenon, but a continuing fact since the beginning of the human history. So, agriculture also claiming a tradition as like the human history claims.
In the experiences of modern India, agriculture played a vital role and its trend analysis is very interesting. During the colonial period, the productivity of the Indian agriculture was too much lower. Now, the productivity increased drastically especially after the adoption of green revolution. It was one of the great milestones in the history of India. Here this hub is aimed to explain very briefly about green revolution, its major factors or components and it’s after effects.
Background of the Adoption of Green Revolution
The idea of green revolution was introduced by Norman Burlaug in Mexico. This was a great event in the history of mankind. He is known as the father of green revolution. He awarded with Nobel Prize in 1970. In India, Dr. M.S Swaminathan gave the leadership for green revolution.
Post independent India was in a critical stage with numerous problems. The country challenged poverty, spreading deceases, food shortage, natural calamities etc. Therefore, the first five year plan (1951-56) of the country itself focused on the empowerment of agriculture. But the growth rate of agricultural output was not much successful as it was planned. Finally during the third and fourth five year plans (during 1960s), envisaged a big change in the agricultural sector. That was green revolution or new agricultural policy of India. The ultimate aim behind this change was to eliminate the central problems of the country.
Finally, the package of green revolution introduced in India in the year 1964 through a program called Intensive Agricultural District Program (IADP). This was introduced in three selected districts of the country. Gradually, in the year 1965, the same program spread to 144 districts of the country and the program came to known as Intensive Agricultural Area Program (IAAP). From the above words, it is clear that, the first step of the program was successful. Because, in the second stages of the program, the area of cultivation increased drastically.
Major factors or Components of green revolution
Green revolution was a package consisting of various components or factors like high quality seeds, mechanization, modernization of agriculture, developed infrastructure facilities etc. Some of the important components of green revolution are listed below with small description.
1. High Yielding Varieties (HYV) seeds
High Yielding of Varieties of seeds are the most important component of green revolution. These seeds are prepared scientifically with better quality. Compared to traditional seeds, it proved more productivity. So, after the implementation of green revolution, the country witnessed a big push in the quantity of output. Some of the seeds of wheat are Lerma Rojo, WG357, WL 212, S 308 and rice are Jaya, IR8 etc. From teh begining itself wheat production recorded a huge increment.
Mechanization is another factor included in the green revolution package. Mechanization resulted in the revolutionary changes in the agricultural system of the country. It removed the oldest agricultural tools and equipments. Instance, it introduced many advanced tools and equipments. In short, the new method of farming and mechanization improved the quality and speed of agriculture.
3. Improved credit facilities
Another component of green revolution was that, agricultural credit facilities were improved a lot. Mainly, there are two types of party supplying loans and advances to the agriculture. They are institutional and non-institutional credit providers. Non-institutional creditors are exploitative in nature. During 1951, non-institutional credit providers were supplied 92.7% of the total credit. After, as an impact of the government polices of green revolution, the share of non-institutional credit decreased to 25% in 1996. Along with the green revolution, the country totally changed its structure of credit facilities. The country witnessed expansion of institutional credit providers in different labels like cooperative banks, commercial banks, Regional Rural Banks (RRBs), NABARD etc.
4. Infrastructure Development
As a part of green revolution, Indian agriculture gained many positive changes in the infrastructural system like transportation, communication, irrigation facilities etc. It helped the country to build a strong and efficient agricultural system. At the time of post independent era, the country lacked basic infrastructural facilities. Now, it has improved a lot.
5. Agricultural Inputs
To get maximum agricultural output, the agricultural input must be improved. Now, India changed from its traditional way of cultivation to modernized and scientific one. After green revolution, the agricultural productivity and output increased. It is basically because of the usage of quality inputs like fertilizers, pesticides and other tools and equipments.
Effects of Green Revolution
Green revolution had a wide impact on the Indian economy. It totally changed the structure of agriculture compared to the independent era. Here some of the common effects of green revolution are listed below.
- It increased Agricultural Production and Productivity
One of the most important effect of green revolution is that, it drastically increased the agricultural production as well as productivity. The agricultural output increased more than three fond of the production of post independent era. Another impact is that, green revolution had a great impact in the increasing of agricultural productivity. During 1950-51, the productivity was 552 Kilograms per hectare of the land. It increased to 1898 Kilo Grams by 2008.
2. Reduction in Poverty
As an impact of green revolution, poverty rate of the country reduced drastically especially the rural poverty. The increment in the agricultural production helped the country top feed its poor people. So, this is another positive impact of green revolution.
Sociological impacts of green revolution
Green revolution had many positive and negative impacts on the Indi9ansociety. Basically, it reduced the inequality between persons and regions. Again, green revolution changed the attitude of people to agricultural sector. Now, it becomes a profitable employment.
Green revolution had many negative impacts also. It caused for many accidents due to the introduction of huge machines. Further, it caused for many health hazards due to the usage of poisoned fertilizers and pesticides. It had also some bad effects on the environment, soil etc. Even though green revolution had negative impacts, but these negative impacts are comparatively inferior to positive impacts. So in short, green revolution helped the country to face its challenges and still helping to march from one stage of progress to another stage.