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Health Psychology (Week 3) Assessing Stress Study Guide with Answers

Updated on July 9, 2017

3-2 Quiz: Module Three Quiz

Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by
A. biochemical and physiological changes.

B. cognitive changes.

C. behavioral changes.

D. All of these.

The fight-or-flight response
A. is never adaptive.

B. involves arousal of the parasympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system. C. involves arousal of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system.

D. is subject to large individual differences.

The tend-and-befriend response to stress

A. is especially characteristic of females.

B. is related to the release of the stress hormone, oxytocin.
C. may be necessary in the protection of offspring.

D. All of these.

According to Lazarus's model, the subjective experience of stress is a result of

A. the general adaptation syndrome.
B. primary appraisal.

C. secondary appraisal.

D. the balance between primary and secondary appraisal.

Research suggests that individual differences in reactivity to stress are related to individual differences in
A. acute and chronic illness.

B. psychological responses to stressors.

C. primary and secondary appraisal.

D. All of these.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with

A. temporary changes in the brain, involving the amygdala.

B. decreased cortisol, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

C. biochemical and hormonal alterations that last over a long period.

D. All of these.

The relationship between scores on the Stressful Life Events (SLE) inventory and illness is
A. negligible.

B. modest.

C. robust.

D. unpredictable.

Risky families
A. are high in conflict or abuse and low in warmth and nurturance.
B. have financial problems.

C. are ones who experience major, chronic, recurrent stress as opposed to more modest family stress.

D. have no long term impact on the family members.

Chronic strain appears to
A. influence the relationship between specific stressors and physical effects.

B. habituate people to negative life events.

C. be unrelated to negative life events.

D. be unrelated to illness.

Researchers investigating the effects of multiple roles on women conclude that

A. outside employment can be beneficial for women's well-being.

B. having control and flexibility over the work environment reduces the likelihood of stress.

C. having adequate child care reduces the likelihood of stress.

D. All of these.

The process of _______________ involves an individual's efforts to manage internal or external demands that tax his or her resources.

A. primary appraisal

B. secondary appraisal

C. coping

D. All of these.

Individuals high in negative affectivity

A. may be described as having a "disease-prone" personality.

B. are more likely to seek out medical care for minor complaints.

C. repress their stress-related symptoms but complain more about their general health.

D. are characterized as being depressed, anxious, and psychotic.

Scheier, Weintraub, and Carver (1986) found that optimists may cope more effectively because they are more likely to use _______________ as a coping strategy.
A. denial

B. distancing

C. problem-focused coping
D. accepting personal responsibility

Control has been related to
A. emotional well-being.
B. successful coping.

C. improved cognitive performance.

D. All of these.

_____________________ is a general propensity to deal with stressful events in a particular way.

A. Primary response style
B. Individual difference

C. Personality style

D. Coping style

Research investigating the effectiveness of avoidant and vigilant coping strategies suggests that
A. avoidant strategies are effective in dealing with long-term stressors.

B. vigilant copers may exhibit short-term anxiety but cope well with long-term stressors.

C. the use of vigilant or confrontational coping styles may represent a risk factor for negative responses to stressors.

D. both avoidant and vigilant strategies are equally effective in coping with stress.

Coping is considered successful if it
A. reduces physiological arousal.

B. allows the person to return to prestress activities (when appropriate).

C. reduces psychological arousal.
D. All of these.

Research evidence suggests that social support may reduce
A. the likelihood of becoming ill, but it has no effect on recovery rates or mortality.

B. the likelihood of becoming ill only indirectly by affecting health habits.

C. the likelihood of becoming ill, shorten recovery rates, and reduce mortality.
D. perceived psychological distress, but it has no effect on physical health or illness.

On the whole, persons who provide social support to others _______________ than those who do not provide social support.
A. live longer

B. have better mental health

C. have better physical health

D. All of these.

Stress management programs
A. are best conducted on an individual basis by a licensed psychotherapist.

B. are effective in relieving psychological distress but are seldom used in the treatment of stress-related illnesses.

C. may be beneficial in controlling a broad array of stress-related disorders.

D. may be beneficial in controlling stress-related disorders and psychological distress, but have not yet been proven to be cost effective.


Please assess your own stress levels and coping styles by completing the following brief questionnaires as they apply to you: the Holmes and Rahe Life Stressors Scale, the Hassles and Uplifts Scale, and the Identification of Coping Styles worksheet. You will find links to each of these questionnaires within the Resources section. After you have completed these questionnaires, please think about your own stressors, patterns of reactivity, and coping methods and share your findings. Apply the concepts presented in this module as appropriate while addressing the following questions:

  • Are there specific types of situations that you find particularly stressful and do you attribute more of your stress to major life events or daily hassles?
  • Please analyze your coping methods in relation to their health benefits - are your coping strategies healthy? Why or why not?
  • Finally, have you noticed any connection between your own stress and health (either good health or poor health)?

Holmes and Rahe Life Stressors Scale Score: 179

Identification of Coping Styles: Positive Techniques =12 & Negative Techniques = 2


There are certain types of situations that provoke a higher stress response in different people; “stress is a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changes that are directed either toward altering the stressful event or accommodating to its effects” (Taylor, 2015, p. 113). For example I find situations involving doctors, hospitals, and needles to be particularly stressful ever since I spent a week in a hospital after my spinal fusion surgery. The fact that most of my stress is caused by medical incidents, I consider my stress to be a mix between major life events and daily hassles. This is because a medical situation for me could be anything from a routine checkup to a hospital trip for an injury, making the nature of the event the determining factor for whether my stress would be caused by major life events or daily hassles.

When I completed the “Identification of Coping Styles” worksheet I found that most of my coping techniques are considered to be healthy. Coping is defined by Health Psychology (2015) “as the thoughts and behaviors used to manage the internal and external demands of situations that are appraised as stressful”. My main coping strategies tend to be: playing with a pet, excising, watching TV/movie, reading a book, or becoming deeply involved in another activity. I consider these coping strategies healthy as they all involve me taking a break from the stressor and becoming involved in something to distract me from the stressor. This in turn gives me the time I need in order to manage the internal and external demands of the stressor. My unhealthy coping techniques are anticipating the worst possible outcome and become irritable. These techniques are considered unhealthy because they offer no productive means of managing the internal and external demands of the stressor.

I have noticed a connection between my stress levels and my physical health. One of the first times I noticed a real connection between my stress levels and my physical health was when I was in high school and I was diagnosed with Kyphosis and I had to spinal fusion surgery. In the weeks leading up to the surgery I experienced high levels of stress which affected my health through stomach sickness. In this case my stress was caused by a major life event and my stress was due to my fear of how I would be after the surgery with regards to both pain and the level of success of the surgery. This experience is also what causes me to believe that the body and the mind are so heavily intertwined that the state of one affects the state of the other.

References

Taylor, S. (2015). Health Psychology (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

Responses

I found your post about your stress to be very interesting. I consider my own stress to be a mix between major life events and daily hassles. This is because my stress is often caused by medical situations which could be anything from a routine checkup to a hospital trip for an injury, making the nature of the event the determining factor for whether my stress would be caused by major life events or daily hassles.

Coping is defined by Health Psychology (2015) “as the thoughts and behaviors used to manage the internal and external demands of situations that are appraised as stressful”. My main coping strategies tend to be: playing with a pet, excising, watching TV/movie, reading a book, or becoming deeply involved in another activity. All of these activities help me to manage the internal and external demands of stressful situations by getting my mind off of the stressor. Have you ever tried to escape stress my throwing yourself into something else? I often find that this works well for me because after the distraction my mind is much clearer and this makes it easier for me to deal with the stressor in a healthy manner.

References

Taylor, S. (2015). Health Psychology (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.


I liked your post; I especially liked how you focused on coping strategies that are both healthy and unhealthy. I use playing with a pet, excising, watching TV/movie, reading a book, or becoming deeply involved in another activity as coping methods when I have to deal with a stressor. The technique that works the best for me is walking my dog because it allows me to combine two strategies and helps me to clear my mind. This then allows me to deal with the stressor from a better state of mind. Do you ever find that being calm makes it easier to deal with a stressor?

I have also found that there is a direct connection between my stress levels and my physical health. One of the first times I noticed a real connection between my stress levels and my physical health was when I was in high school and I was diagnosed with Kyphosis and I had to spinal fusion surgery. In the weeks leading up to the surgery I experienced high levels of stress which affected my health through stomach sickness. I have also noticed that while a small amount of stress does not bother my health a large amount of stress does. For instance last year there were a lot of problems at my work and I found that I was under a high amount of stress this left me feeling sick most days until the problems were resolved. Have you ever had work stress affect your health?

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